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劳埃德质量管理体系标准

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劳埃德质量管理体系标准

List of Abbreviations

缩写清单

Abbreviation

缩写    Meaning

含义

A    Abnormal (for partial safety factors)

反常工况(局部安全系数)

C    Condition of the serviceability

适用条件

CRP    Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic

碳纤维增强塑料

Coh    Coherence function

功能一致性

DLC    Design Load Case

设计负荷工况

ECD    Extreme Coherent gust with Direction change

方向改变的极限持续阵风

ECG    Extreme Coherent Gust

极限阵风

EDC    Extreme Direction Change

极限方向改变

EOG    Extreme Operating Gust

极限运行阵风

EWM    Extreme Wind speed Model

极限风速模式

EWS    Extreme Wind Shear

极限剪切风

F    Fatigue

疲劳

FEM    Finite Element Method

有限元方法

FRP    Fibre Reinforced Plastic

纤维增强塑料

GRP    Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic

玻璃纤维增强塑料

GL    Germanischer Lloyd

德国劳埃德船级社

GL Wind    Germanischer Lloyd WindEnergie GmbH

德国劳埃德船级社风能股份有限公司

LDD    Load Duration Distribution

负载持续分布

N    Normal and extreme (for partial safety factors) 正常和极限情况(对于分项系数)

NTM    Normal Turbulence Model

正常湍流模式

NWP    Normal Wind Profile

正常风速轮廓

S    Wind turbine class S (S for special)

风轮类别S(S表示特殊)

T    Transport, erection and maintenance (for partial safety factors and for the wind speed)

运输,树立和维护(对于分项系数和风速)

U    Ultimate limit state

最终极限状态

Symbols and Units

符号和单位

Symbols and Units Used in the Guideline

本指南中所采用的符号和标准

 

Symbol

符号     Meaning

含义    Unit

单位    Remarks

备注

A     cross-section area (strength)

横截面(强度)

reference surface (aerodynamics)

参考面(空气动力学)    m²

   

A     category for the higher turbulence intensity

高湍流强度的种类    -     (see Section 4.2.2)

AS     stress cross-section

压力面    m²     (see Section 5.3.3.4.1)

a     slope parameter

斜坡参数    -     (see Section 4.2.2)

B     category for the lower turbulence intensity

低湍流强度的种类    -     (see Section 4.2.2)

b     width (breadth)

宽度(幅度)    m   

b1     opening width (arc measure)

开口宽度(弧形测量方法)    m     (see Section 6.6.7.2)

C     scale parameter of the Weibull function

韦伯函数指数    m/s     (see Section 4.2.3.1.1)

CA     coefficient of aerodynamic lift

升力系数    -    

CW     coefficient of aerodynamic drag

阻力系数    -    

CM     coefficient of aerodynamic moment

力矩系数    -    

Cia     reduction factors for the material safety factor, short-term strength

材料安全因子,短期强度    -     i from 1 to 4

Cib     reduction factors for the material safety factor, fatigue strength

材料安全因子,疲劳强度    -     i from 1 to 5

Cic     reduction factors for the material safety factor, stability

材料安全因子,稳定性    -     i from 1 to 2

Cid     reduction factors for the material safety factor, bonding

材料安全因子,粘接    -     i from 1 to 4

CIFF     reduction factor for inter-fibre failure

内部纤维失效因子    -     (cf. Section 5.5.3)

cmax     maximum blade depth

最大叶片深度    m     (cf. Section 4.2.4.2.3)

cmin     parameter for calculating the ice formation on the blade

叶片上结冰形态的计算参数    m     (see Section 4.2.4.2.3)

D     damage

损坏    -    

D, d     diameter

直径    m    

DQ     damage contribution from vortex-induced transverse vibrations

横向涡激震动的损坏影响    -     (see Section 6.6.6.1.5)

DF     damage contribution of the actions from the operating conditions

运行工况下损坏影响    -     (see Section 6.6.6.1.5)

d     nominal bolt diameter

名义螺栓直径    m     (see Section 5.3.3.4.1)

E     E-modulus (modulus of elasticity)

弹性模量    MPa, N/mm²    

F     force

力    N    

Fi     force acting in the direction i = x, y or z

力作用在方向上,i = x, y 或 z    N     (see Chapter 4, Appendix B)

FSmax     max. bolt force under extreme load

极限负载下最大螺栓力    N     (see Section 5.3.3.4.1)

F0,2min     bolt force at the 0.2 % elastic strain limit

0.2%的弹性拉力极限下的螺栓力    N     (see Section 5.3.3.4.1)

f     line force

线密度力    N/m

   

f     frequency

频率    1/s     f = ω/(2π)

f0,n     n-th natural frequency

n次基频    1/s     n = 1, 2, …

fR     maximum rotating frequency of the rotor in the normal operating range

正常运行范围内转子最大旋转频率    1/s    

fR,m     transition frequency of the m rotor blades

转子交变频率    1/s    

G     gust reaction factor

阵风作用因子    -    

G     dead weight

固定负载/净负载    N    

G     shear modulus

剪切模量    MPa, N/mm²    

g     area load from dead weight

固定负载下的面积负载    N/m²    

g     acceleration due to gravity (=9.81m/s²)

重力加速度(g=9.81m/s²)    m/s²    

h     height

高度    m    

h1     opening height

运行高度    m     (see Section 6.6.7.2)

I     moment of inertia

惯性力矩   

    m4

I15     characteristic value of the turbulence intensity for a mean wind speed of 15 m/s

平均风速15m/s时的湍流强度特征值    -     (see Section 4.2.2)

j     casting quality level

阵风等级    -     (see Section 5.3.3.4.3)

j0     constant

常数    -     (see Section 5.3.3.4.3)

K     modified Bessel function

修改过的Bessel方程   

    -

KA     application factor

运用因子    -     (see Section 7.4.4.3.1)

KFα     transverse load factor, root stress

横向负载因数, 叶根受力    -     (see Section 7.4.4.3.5)

KFβ     face load factor, root stress

面负载因子,叶根受力    -     (see Section 7.4.4.3.4)

KHα     transverse load factor, contact stress

横向负载因子,接触压力    -     (see Section 7.4.4.3.5)

KHβ     face load factor, contact stress

面负载因子,接触压力    -     (see Section 7.4.4.3.4)

KV     dynamic load factor

气动负载因子    -     (see Section 7.4.4.3.2)

Kγ     load distribution factor

负载分布因子    -     (see Section 7.4.4.3.3)

k     flange gaps

法兰间隙    m     (see Section 6.6.7.1)

k     shape parameter of the Weibull function

韦伯函数的形状参数    -     (see Section 4.2.3.1.1)

ks     reduction factor for the design S/N curve of large bolts

大螺栓的设计S/N曲线的缩减因子    -     (see Section 5.3.3.4.1)

L     isotropic, integral turbulence scale parameter

等方性,积分湍流尺度参数    m    

Le     scale parameter of the coherence function

相干函数的尺度参数    m    

Lk     integral length parameter of the speed component

速度组分的积分长度参数    m    

l     component length

部件长度    m    

l     statically effective span

静态计算跨度    m    

M     moment

力矩    Nm    

MBmin     minimum required braking moment

最小要求的制动力矩    kNm     (see Section 7.5.1)

MBminAusl     minimum design braking moment

最小设计制动力矩    kNm     (see Section 7.5.1)

MBmax     maximum actual braking moment

最大实际制动力矩    kNm     (see Section 7.5.1)

Mi     moment acting in the direction i = x, y or z

力矩作用方向i = x, y or z    Nm     (see Chapter 4, Appendix 4.B)

Mk     tilting moment of the induction generator

感应发电机的倾斜力矩    Nm     (see Chapter 4, Appendix 4.C)

Mn     rated torque

额定力矩    Nm     (see Chapter 4, Appendix 4.C)

m     mass

质量    kg    

m     slope parameter of the S/N curve

S/N曲线的倾斜参数    -    

N     permissible load cycle number

允许负载循环数    -    

N     perpendicular force (axial force)

垂直力(轴向力)    N    

N     recurrence period for extreme conditions

极端情况的出现周期    a    

Ni     tolerable number of stress cycles

可接受的应力次数    -     (see Section 5.3.3.2.3)

ND     limiting stress cycle number – fatigue limit

许可应力次数-疲劳极限    -     (see Section 5.3.3.4)

n     quantity (i.e. number of)

数量(比如,几个)    -    

n     rotational speed

旋转速度    1/min    

n1     minimum operating rotational speed

最小运行旋转速度    1/min     (see Section 2.2.2.5)

n2     set value of the speed controller

速度控制器设定值    1/min     (see Section 2.2.2.5)

n3     maximum operating rotational speed

最大运行旋转速度    1/min     (see Section 2.2.2.5)

Vave     annual average wind speed at hub height

轮毂高度平均年均风速    m/s     (see Section 4.2.3.1.1 und 4.2.2)

VB     gust value

阵风值    m/s     (see Section 2.2.3.3.2)

Vcg     extreme value of the wind speed amplitude for the coherent gust shape over the swept rotor area, applying the extreme coherent gust

风轮扫略面连续阵风风速幅值的极端值    m/s     (ECG: see Section 4.2.3.2.4)

VeN     expected extreme wind speed (averaged over 3 s), with a recurrence period of N years. Ve1 and Ve50 for 1 or 50 years respectively, applying the steady-state extreme wind speed model

期望的极端风速(平均超过3s),N年出现一次。运用连续极端风速模型,Ve1 和Ve50 f分别表示1年和50年    m/s     (EWM: see Section 4.2.3.2.1)

VgustN     maximum value of the wind speed for the extreme operating gust, with an expected recurrence period of N years

极端运行阵风时最大风速值,N年出现一次    m/s     (EOG: see Section 4.2.3.2.2)

Vhub     10-min mean of the wind speed at hub height

轮毂高度10min平均风速    m/s    

Vin     cut-in wind speed

切入风速    m/s     (see Section 2.2.2.7)

VN     expected extreme wind speed (averaged over 10 min), with a recurrence period of N years. V1 and V50 for 1 or 50 years respectively, applying the turbulent extreme wind speed model

N年出现一次的期望极端风速(平均超过10分钟)。运用湍流极端风速模型,Ve1 和Ve50 f分别表示1年和50年    m/s     (EWM: see Section 4.2.3.2.1)

Vout     cut-out wind speed

切出风速    m/s     (see Section 2.2.2.7)

Vr     rated wind speed

额定风速    m/s     (see Section 2.2.2.7)

Vref     reference wind speed: fundamental parameter of the extreme wind speed, used for definition of the type classes

参考风速:极端风速的基本参数,用于定义风的类型等级。    m/s     (see Section 4.2.2)

VT     the 10-min mean of the wind speed at hub height, specified by the manufacturer for maintenance, erection and transport. VT can consist of several quantities.

用于维护、树立和运输时轮毂高度10min的平均风速,由制造商规定,VT可以由一些量构成。    m/s     (cf. Section 4.3.4.8)

v     coefficient of variation

变化系数    -    

v     displacement in the y direction

y方向上的位移    m    

W     section modulus of a plane

平面的剖面模数    m³    

w     displacement in the z direction

z方向上的位移    m    

X“d     subtransient reactance

瞬时电抗    -     (see Chapter 4, Appendix 4.C)

x; x’     coordinates

坐标系    m    

y     parameter for the extreme wind shear model: horizontal distance to the hub centreline

极端剪切风模型参数:到轮毂中心线的水平距离    -     (EWS: see Section 4.2.3.2.6)

y; y’     Coordinates

坐标系    m    

z     height over terrain surface

地表以上高度    m     (see Section 4.2.3.1.2)

zhub     hub height of the wind turbine over ground level

地面以上风轮轮毂高度    m     (see Section 4.2.3.1.2)

z; z’     coordinates

坐标系    m    

α     power law exponent for the normal wind profile

正常风廓幂指数    -     (see Section 4.2.3.1.2)

αS     inclination of the outer flange surfaces

外法兰表面倾斜    °     (see Section 6.6.7.1)

β     parameter for the models of extreme operating gust, extreme direction change and extreme wind shear

极端运行阵风参数,极端方向改变和极端风剪切    -     (EOG: see Section 4.2.3.2.2), (EDC: see Section 4.2.3.2.3), (EWS: see Section 4.2.3.2.6)

Γ     gamma function

伽玛功能    -     (see Section 4.2.3.1.1)

γ     slip

滑动    -     = τ/G

n4     cut-out speed

切出风速    1/min     (see Section 2.2.2.5)

nA     activation speed

运行风速    1/min     (see Section 2.2.2.5)

n i     number of existing stress cycles

现有的应力出现次数    -     (see Section 5.3.3.2.3)

nmax     maximum overspeed

最大过风速    1/min     (see Section 2.2.2.5)

nr     rated speed

额定风速    1/min     (see Section 2.2.2.5)

nref     reference load cycle number

参考负载出现次数    -     (see Chapter 4, Appendix 4.B)

P     confidence level

信心等级    -    

P     live load

实际负载    N    

P     power

功率    W    

PÜ     survival probability

生存概率    -     (see Section 5.3.3.4.2)

PA     activation power

实际功率    kW     (see Section 2.2.2.6)

Pr     rated power

额定功率    kW     (see Section 2.2.2.6)

PR (Vhub)     Rayleigh probability distribution, i.e. the probability that V < Vo

瑞利概率分布,比如V<V0的概率    -     (see Section 4.2.3.1.1)

PT     over-power

过载    kW     (see Section 2.2.2.6)

PW (Vhub)     Weibull probability distribution

韦伯概率分布    -     (see Section 4.2.3.1.1)

p     area live load

单位面积负载    N/m²    

Q     total load

总负载    N    

q     area loading

面负载    N/m²    

R     resistance

阻力    N, Nm, MPa     generic term, referring e.g. to a tolerable bending moment

专业术语,比如,参见许可弯曲力矩

R     stress or strain ratio

应力或者应变率     -     R= σ min/σ max

R, r     radius

半径    m    

S     action

作用力    N, Nm, MPa     generic term, referring e.g. to an acting bending moment

专业术语,比如,参见实际弯曲力矩

Sd     reduction factor – casting quality

铸件质量缩减因子    -     (see Section 5.3.3.4.3)

SF     safety against tooth root fracture

齿根脆性的安全防护    -    

SH     safety against pitting

气蚀防护    -    

S Pü     reduction factor – survival probability

存活率缩减因子     -     >2/3 (see Section 5.3.3.4)

大于2/3 (见第5.3.3.4部分)

S1 (f)     power spectral density

能量频谱密度    m2/s2     (see Section 4.2.3.1.3)

SS     safety against scuffing

防刮擦保护       

sK     tilting slip of the induction generator

异步发电机倾斜片(悬臂)    -     (see Chapter 4, Appendix 4.C)

T     temperature

温度

    °C, K    

T     time interval

时间间隔    s    

T     characteristic gust shape duration

典型阵风形状持续时间    s    

t     component thickness

部件厚度    m    

t     time (as a variable)

时间(作为变量)     s    

T1     time constant of the stator

定子时间常数    s     (see Chapter 4, Appendix 4.C)

Ui     i% fractile value of the normal distribution

正态分布分数I%    -    

u     displacement in the x direction

x方向位移    m    

V     thrust

推力    N    

V     wind speed

风速    m/s    

V (y, z, t)     longitudinal component of the wind speed, describing the horizontal wind shear

风速的纵向构成,描述水平风剪切    m/s     (EWS: see Section 4.2.3.2.6)

V (z)     magnitude of the wind speed at the height z

高度z上的风速量级    m/s     (see Section 4.2.3.1.2)

V (z, t)     longitudinal component of the wind speed in relation to height and time

与高度和时间相关的风速纵向构成    m/s     (EWS: see Section 4.2.3.2.6)

VA     short-term cut-out wind speed

短期切出风速    m/s     (see Section 2.2.2.7)

γF     partial safety factor for the loads

负荷分项系数    -     (see Section 4.3.5)

γGr     partial safety factor for the analysis of the safety against bearing capacity failure

防止轴承失效的安全分析的分项系数    -     (see Section 6.7.6.3)

γM     partial safety factor for the material

材料的分项系数    -     (see Sections 5.3.2.1, 5.3.3.2.2 and 5.4.1.2)

γM0     material partial safety factor

材料分项系数    -     = 1.35, see Section 5.5.2.4, para 1

γMa     material partial safety factor for short-term strength

短期强度的材料分项系数    -     (see Section 5.5.2)

γMb     material partial safety factor for fatigue strength

疲劳强度的材料分项系数    -     (see Section 5.5.2)

γMc     material partial safety factor for stability

稳定性的材料分项系数    -     (see Section 5.5.3)

γMd     material partial safety factor for bonding, short-term strength

粘接的材料分项系数,短期强度    -     (see Section 5.5.6)

γMe     material partial safety factor for bonding, long-term strength

粘接的材料分项系数,长期强度    -     (see Section 5.5.6)

γM,3     material partial safety factor for the analysis of shear-loaded connections

剪切负荷连接处分析的材料分项系数    -     (see Section 6.6.7.3)

γP     partial safety factor for the analysis of pile foundations

桩基分析的分项系数    -     (see Section 6.7.6.4)

γiT     load partial safety factor for the rotor blade test

叶轮试验的负荷分项系数    -     i from 1 to 2

I从1到2

δ     opening angle

运行角    °     (see Section 6.6.7.2)

δB     logarithmic decrement

对数衰减率    -    

ε     strain

应变率    -     = σ/E

ε     nonlinear notch strain

非线性缺口应力    -     (see Section 5.A.1.5)

Θcg     greatest angular deviation during a gust development from the direction of the average wind speed, applying the model for extreme coherent gust with direction change

在阵风发展过程中,从平均风速方向上的最大角偏移,运用方向变化的极端连续阵风模型    °     (ECD: see Section 4.2.3.2.5)

Θ(t)     time curve of the wind direction change

风向变化的时间曲线    °    

ΘeN     extreme direction change, with a recurrence period of N years, applying the model of the extreme direction change

极端方向变化,N年出现一次,运用极端风向变化模型    °     (EDC: see Section 4.2.3.2.3)

ΘN(t)     time curve of the extreme direction change with a recurrence period of N years, apply-ing the model of the extreme direction change

N年出现一次的极端方向变化的时间曲线,运用极端方向变化模型    °     (EDC: see Section 4.2.3.2.3)

Θ     temperature

温度    °C    

Θmean, year     annual average temperature

年均温度    °C     (see Section 4.4.5.2)

Θ1year min/max     extreme temperature with a recurrence period of 1 year

1年重复出现的极端温度    °C     (see Section 4.4.5.2)

Θmin/max, operation     extreme temperature for operation

运行极端温度    °C     (see Section 4.4.5.2)

Λ1     turbulence scale parameter

湍流尺度    m     (see Section 4.2.3.1.3)

μ     friction coefficient / slip factor

摩擦系数/滑动因子    -    

μE     parameter for calculating the ice formation on the rotor blade

叶片上冰的计算参数    kg/m,     (see Section 4.2.4.2.3)

ρ     density

密度    kg/m³    

ρE     density of the ice

冰的密度    kg/m3     (see Section 4.2.4.2.3)

σ     normal stress

常压    MPa, N/mm²    

σ     nonlinear notch stress

非线性缺口应力    MPa, N/mm²     (see Appendix 5.A, Section 5.A.1.5)

ΔσA     reference value of the S/N curve

S/N曲线的参考值    MPa, N/mm²     (see Section 5.3.3.4.2)

Δσ∗A     reference value of the S/N curve

S/N曲线的参考值    MPa, N/mm²     (see Section 5.3.3.4.2)

ΔσD     fatigue limit

疲劳极限    MPa, N/mm²     (see Section 5.3.3.4.2)

σk     linear-elastic notch stress

线性弹性缺口应力    MPa, N/mm²     (see Appendix 5.A, Section 5.A.1.5)

σS     structural or hot spot stress

结构或者热点应力    MPa, N/mm²     (see Appendix 5.A, Section 5.A.1.5)

σ1     standard deviation of the longitudinal wind speed at hub height

轮毂高度纵向风速的标准偏差    m/s     (see Section 4.2.3.1.3)

Δσ i     stress range

应力范围    MPa, N/mm²     (see Section 5.3.3.2.3)

τ     shear stress

剪切应力    MPa, N/mm²    

Φ     inclination of the plane

平面倾斜    °    

φ     yaw error

偏航错误    °     (see Section 2.2.2.8)

Φ     angle for two-phase short circuit

两相短路角    °     (see Chapter 4, Appendix 4.C)

φA     cut-out yaw error

切出偏航错误    °     (see Section 2.2.2.8)

ω     angular velocity

角速度    1/s     ω = 2πf

Ωg     grid angular frequency

电网角频率    1/s     (see Chapter 4, Appendix 4.C)

1P, 2P, 3P...     excitation of the wind turbine through the rotor speed multiplied by the factor 1, 2, 3...

通过风轮转速乘以因数1,2,3,风力发电机组的励磁,    1/s    

 

Subscripts

下标

 

Symbol

符号     Meaning

含义    Remarks

备注

A     amplitude

振幅   

c     pressure

压力    separated by a comma (σSd,c)

用逗号隔开(σSd,c)

 

d     design value

设计值   

F     load, action

负荷作用   

F     tooth root

齿根   

i     enumeration

列举   

k     characteristic quantity

特征量   

M     material, mean value

材料,平均值    e.g. γM, εM

max     maximum

最大值   

min     minimum

最小值   

p     prestress

预应力    separated by a comma (σRd,p)

用逗号隔开(σRd,p)

R     resisting

阻力    preceding in combination with the sub-scripts k and d, but without separation by a comma (e.g. σRd or εRk)

上面所说的结合下标k和d,但是不用逗号隔开(比如σRd 或εRk)

res     resulting

结果   

S     acting

作用    preceding in combination with the sub-scripts k and d, but without separation by a comma (e.g. FSd or MSk)

上面所说的结合下标k和d,但是不用逗号隔开(比如FSd 或MSk)

t     tension

张力    separated by a comma (σRd,t)

用逗号隔开(σRd,t)

x; x’     coordinate designation

坐标名    

y; y’     coordinate designation

坐标名   

z; z’     coordinate designation

坐标名   

 

Auxiliary symbols

辅助符号

Symbol

符号     Meaning

含义

     mean value of the overlined quantity

上标量平均值

Rules and Guidelines

规则和指南

IV Industrial Services

IV 工业用途

1 Guideline for the Certification of Wind Turbines

1.风力发电机组认证指南

2 Safety System, Protective and Monitoring Devices

2 安全系统、保护和监测设备

 

Table of contents

目录

 

IV Industrial Services    103

IV 工业用途103

Table of contents    104

目录    104

2.1 General    112

2.1 概论    112

2.1.1    Assessment documents    112

2.1.1 评估文件    112

2.1.2    Systematic consideration of possible faults    114

2.1.2 可能故障的系统考虑    114

2.1.3    Description of the controller for approval of the load assumptions    115

2.1.3 批准的载荷控制器描述    115

Note:    115

2.2 Control and Safety System    117

2.2 控制和安全系统    117

2.2.1 General    117

2.2.1 概述    117

2.2.2 Definitions    117

2.2.2 定义    117

2.2.2.1 Control concept and control system    117

2.2.2.1 控制观念和控制系统    117

2.2.2.2 Safety concept and safety system    118

2.2.2.2 安全观念和安全系统    118

2.2.2.3 Braking system    118

2.2.2.3 制动系统    118

2.2.2.4 Clearance    119

2.2.2.4 清除    119

2.2.2.5 Rotational speed of the rotor    119

2.2.2.5风轮旋转速度    119

2.2.2.6 Power    121

2.2.2.6 功率    121

2.2.2.7 Wind speed    122

2.2.2.7 风速    122

2.2.2.8 Wind direction and yaw error    122

2.2.2.8 风向和偏航误差    122

2.2.2. 9 External power supply, mains failure    123

2.2.2.9 外部电源,主电网失效    123

2.2.2.10 Locking devices    123

2.2.2.10 锁定装置    123

2.2.3 Requirements and design concept    124

2.2.3 要求和设计观念    124

2.2.3.1 General safety concept    124

2.2.3.1一般安全观念    124

2.2.3.1.1 Single failure    124

2.2.3.1.1 单个失效    124

2.2.3.1.2 Redundancy    124

2.2.3.1.2 冗余    124

2.2.3.2 Control and safety systems    125

2.2.3.2 控制和安全系统    125

.2.2.3.2.1 Control system    125

2.3.3.2.1 控制系统    125

2.2.3.2.2 Safety system    126

2.2.3.2.2 安全系统    126

2.2.3.3 Braking systems    127

2.2.3.3.1 Braking system requirements    127

2.2.3.3.1 制动系统要求    127

2.2.3.3.2 Wind turbine with mechanical brake and non-independent blade pitching system    127

2.2.3.3.2机械制动和非独立变桨系统的风轮    127

2.2.3.3.3 Selection of the braking principle    129

2.2.2.3.3 制动原理的选择    129

2.2.3.3.4 External power supply    129

2.2.3.3.4外部电源    129

2.2.3.4 Torque-limiting components    130

2.2.3.4 力矩限制部件    130

2.3 Protective and Monitoring Devices    130

2.3 保护和监控设备    130

2.3.1 General    130

2.3.1 概述    130

2.3.2 Limiting values, control system    131

2.3.2 限值,控制系统    131

2.3.2.1 General    131

2.3.2.1 概述    131

2.3.2.2 Rotational speed    131

2.3.2.2转速    131

2.3.2.2.1 Measurement of rotational speed    131

2.3.2.2.1转速测量    131

2.3.2.2.2 Operational reliability of the measurement system    132

2.3.2.2.2检测系统的运行可靠性    132

2.3.2.2.3 Excessive speed and the reaction of the control system    132

2.3.2.2.3过速和控制系统的反应    132

2.3.2.2.4 Rotational speed exceeding activation speed    133

2.3.2.2.4 转速越过触发速度    133

2.3.2.2.5 Behaviour following activation of the safety system    133

2.3.2.2.5安全系统动作后的表现    133

2.3.2.3 Power    134

2.3.2.3 功率    134

2.3.2.3.1 Measurement of power    134

2.3.2.3.1功率量    134

2.3.2.3.2 Measurement of power for the control system    134

2.3.2.3.2控制系统-功率测量    134

2.3.2.3.3 Monitoring the power for the safety system    135

2.3.2.3.3安全系统-功率监控    135

2.3.2.3.4 Exceeding the over-power PT or the rated power Pr    135

2.3.2.3.4过载功率PT超标或者额定功率Pr超标    135

2.3.2.3.5 Exceeding the activation power PA    136

2.3.2.3.5 超过触发功率PA    136

2.3.2.3.6 Automatic start-up    136

2.3.2.3.6 自动启动    136

2.3.2.4 Wind speed    137

2.3.2.4风速    137

2.3.2.4.1 Requirements    137

2.3.2.4.1要求    137

2.3.2.4.2 Measurement of wind speed    137

2.3.2.4.2 风速的测量    137

2.3.2.4.3 Exceeding the cut-out wind speed    138

2.3.2.4.3 超过切出风速    138

2.3.2.4.4 Exceeding the short-term cut-out wind speed    138

2.3.2.4.4超过短期切出风速    138

2.3.2.4.5 Automatic start-up    138

2.3.2.4.5自动启动    138

2.3.2.4.6 Control during faulty wind speed measurements    138

2.3.2.4.6错误风速测量时的控制    138

2.3.2.5 Shock    139

2.3.2.5振动    139

2.3.2.5.1 General    139

2.3.2.5.1 概述    139

2.3.2.5.2 Measurement of shock    139

2.3.2.5.2振动测量    139

2.3.2.5.3 Operational safety    139

2.3.2.5.3运行安全    139

2.3.2.5.4 Exceeding the limiting value    140

2.3.2.5.4超过限值    140

2.3.2.6 Operational vibration monitoring    140

2.3.2.6运行振动监控    140

2.3.2.6.1 General    140

2.3.2.6.1 概述    140

2.3.2.6.2 Measurement of vibrations    141

2.3.2.6.2振动的测量    141

2.3.2.6.3 Determination of the limiting values    141

2.3.2.6.3限值的确定    141

2.3.2.6.4 Exceeding the limiting value    142

2.3.2.6.4超过限值    142

2.3.2.6.5 Automatic start-up    142

2.3.2.6.5自动启动    142

2.3.2.7 Mains failure/load shedding    143

2.3.2.7 主电网失效/负载脱落    143

2.3.2.7.1 General    143

2.3.2.7.1 概述    143

2.3.2.7.2 Operation following mains failure    143

2.3.2.7.2主电网失效后的运行    143

2.3.2.7.3 Operation after restoration of mains    143

2.3.2.7.3主电网恢复后的运行    143

2.3.2.8 Short circuit    143

2.3.2.8短路    143

2.3.2.8.1 Requirements    143

2.3.2.8.1要求    143

2.3.2.8.2 Operation following a short circuit    144

2.3.2.8.2短路后的运行    144

2.3.2.9 Monitoring the generator temperature    144

2.3.2.9监控发电机温度    144

2.3.2.9.1 Requirements    144

2.3.2.9.1要求    144

2.3.2.9.2 Limiting values    144

2.3.2.9.2限值    144

2.3.2.9.3 Operation after excess temperature    144

2.3.2.9.3超温之后的运行    144

2.3.2.10 Condition monitoring of the braking systems    145

2.3.2.10制动系统环境监控    145

2.3.2.10.1 General    145

2.3.2.10.1 概述    145

2.3.2.10.2 Measurement parameters    146

2.3.2.10.2测量参数    146

2.3.2.10.3 Safety requirement    146

2.3.2.10.3安全要求    146

2.3.2.10.4 Operation after a fault is detected    146

2.3.2.10.4故障侦测后的运行    146

2.3.2.11 Cable twisting    147

2.3.2.11 电缆扭曲    147

2.3.2.11.1 Requirements    147

2.3.2.11.1 要求    147

2.3.2.11.2 Measurement parameter    147

2.3.2.11.2 测量参数    147

2.3.2.11.3 Limiting value    147

2.3.2.11.3 限值    147

2.3.2.11.4 Operation after excessive twisting    147

2.3.2.11.4 过渡扭曲后运行    147

2.3.2.12 Yaw system    149

2.3.2.12 偏航系统    149

2.3.2.12.1 Measurement of wind direction    149

2.3.1.12.1 风向测量    149

2.3.2.12.2 Operation for faulty wind direction measurements    149

2.3.2.12.2风向测量失效后的操作    149

2.3.2.12.3 Active yaw system    149

2.3.2.12.3 主动偏航系统    149

2.3.2.12.4 Passive yaw system    150

2.3.2.12.4 被动偏航系统    150

2.3.2.13 Frequency and voltage    150

2.3.2.13 频率及电压    150

2.3.2.14 Emergency push button    151

2.3.2.14紧急按钮    151

2.3.2.14.1 General    151

2.3.2.14.1 概要    151

2.3.2.14.2 Requirements    151

2.3.2.14.2 要求    151

2.3.2.14.3 Operation after activation of Emergency push button    152

2.3.2.14.3 紧急按钮激活后操作    152

2.3.2.15 Faults in machinery components    152

2.3.2.15 机械部件故障    152

2.3.2.16 Operation of a cold plant    153

2.3.2.16冷机组运行    153

2.3.2.17 Operativeness of the control system and data storage    153

2.3.2.17 控制系统和数据存储的可操作性    153

2.3.2.18 Automatic detection of icing-up    154

2.3.2.18 结冰自动检测    154

2.3.2.18.1 Ice sensor    154

2.3.2.18 1 结冰传感器    154

2.3.2.18.2 Operation on detection of icing-up    154

2.3.2.18.2 检测到结冰后的运行    154

2.3.3 Safety equipment (locking devices) for maintenance    154

2.3.3 维护的安全设备(锁定设备)    154

2.3.3.1 Requirements    154

2.3.3.1要求    154

2.3.3.2 Design of the locking devices    155

2.3.3.2 锁定设备的设计    155

2.3.3.3 Safety requirements    155

2.3.3.3 安全要求    155

2.3.3.4 Activation of the locking device    156

2.3.3.4 锁定设备的激活    156

Appendix 2.A Interaction of the Control and Safety Systems    156

附件2.A 控制系统和安全系统的相互作用    156

2.1 General

2.1 概论

2.1.1Assessment documents

2.1.1 评估文件

(1)    For the approval of the safety system and of the protective and monitoring devices, the following documents at least shall be submitted as a rule:

(1) 为了使安全系统、保护和监测设备获得认证,一般来说,至少提交下面一些文件:

a    description of the wind turbine (type designation, general layout of the wind turbine, functional principles, ...)

a 风机描述(风机的类型名称、总体布局,功能原理,…)

b    description of the control concept and the control system (structure of the control system, sequences of starting and stopping procedures, behaviour of the wind turbine during normal operation, behaviour of the wind turbine on detection of malfunctions, ...)

b 控制概念和控制系统的描述(控制系统的结构,启停程序的顺序,风机在正常运行时的性能,风机在发生故障时的性能,…)

c    for the approval of the load assumptions, a description of the controller of the wind turbine as per Section 2.1.3

c 对于负荷认证,风机控制器的描述见第2.1.3节

d    statement of other parameters in the operation management (numerical values that have been set) that influence the loads of the wind turbine (cut-in and cut-out wind speeds, rotational speed values, power values, if applicable the control / regulation of the yaw movements, temperatures, ...)

d 运行管理中(已设定的数值)影响风机载荷的其它参数说明(切入和切出风速,旋转速率,功率值,偏航运动和温度的控制/调节,…)

e    description of the safety concept and the safety system (structure of the safety system, behaviour of the wind turbine following actiof the safety system, statement of the criteria for which the safety system is triggered, ...)

e 安全概念和安全系统的描述(安全系统的结构,安全系统激活时风机的性能,触发安全系统的标准的说明,…)

f    statement of all parameters set in the safety system (numerical values)

f 安全系统中各个参数设置的说明(数值)

g    description of the sensors and, if applicable, measuring transducer of the safety system(type designation, setting values, time constants, ...)

g 传感器的描述,如果在安全系统中使用了测量传感器,则也需描述(类型名称,设定值,时间常数)

h    description of the procedure for clearance of the wind turbine after activation of the safety system

h 安全系统激活后,风机的清除(复位)程序的描述

i    description of the braking systems and their behaviour (structure of the braking systems, mode of operation, characteristic quantities, time constants, ...)

i 制动系统及其性能的描述(制动系统结构,运行模式,特征量,时间常数,…)

j    electrical and hydraulic (if applicable, also pneumatic) circuit diagrams, at least to the extent that the function of the safety system is shown. In the circuit diagrams, the connection between the electrical and hydraulic (and, if applicable, also pneumatic) system shall be clearly recognizable.

J 电力和液压(如果有使用,还有风力)的电路图表,至少可以达到显示安全系统功能的程度。在电路图表中,电力和液压(如果可适用,还有风力)系统间的连接是清晰可认的。

k    systematic consideration of possible faults as per Section 2.1.2

k 系统的可能故障见2.1.2节。

(2)    The documents shall show that the requirements set out in Chapter 2 are met. The degree of detail shall be so selected that the behaviour of the installation is adequately defined with regard to the load assumptions.

(2) 文件必须符合第2章中的要求。并对机组载荷性能作出详细说明。

2.1.2Systematic consideration of possible faults

2.1.2 可能的系统故障

(1)    A consideration of possible faults in the

– safety system,

– in the braking systems, and

– if a cut-out yaw error φA (see Section 2.2.2.8, para 2) was defined, in the yaw system

shall be submitted. In this consideration, all possible faults of these systems shall be specified and examined. The consideration shall be used for the definition of load cases of the groups DLC 2.x and DLC 7.x and for the evaluation of redundancies in the safety system.

(1)安全系统、制动系统、以及偏航系统(如果已定义一个切出偏航误差φA(见第2.2.2.8节中第2段)),必须提交可能的故障报告。这些报告,对于安全系统的冗余评估,将用于定义DLC 2.x 和DLC7.x载荷类型。

(2)    For each possible fault, the following information at least shall be given:

– designation and description of the possible fault

– affected component(s)

– possible cause(s)

– type of detection

– effect(s) of the fault

– measure(s) for limiting negative consequences

(2)对于各种可能的故障,至少给出下面的信息:

-可能的故障的名称和描述

- 受到影响的部件

- 可能的原因

- 检测方式

- 故障影响

- 消除负面影响的方法

(3)    The technique chosen for this examination (e.g. failure mode and effect analysis, fault tree, ...) shall be selected as appropriate by the author of the documents.

(3)文件作者应正确地选择测试技术(如疲劳模态,结果分析,故障树,…)

2.1.3Description of the controller for approval of the load assumptions

2.1.3 载荷认证的控制器说明

(1)    For the simulation of the plant behaviour and the associated loads, a description shall be submitted for all relevant control circuits and monitoring devices that have an influence on the load response of the wind turbine (e.g. power, rotational speed, yaw movement).

(1)对于那些对风机负载响应有影响的相关的控制环路和监控设备,必须提交机组性能和相关载荷的仿真说明(如功率,转速,偏航运动)。

(2)    The behaviour of the control of the wind turbine shall be described by a block circuit diagram, if applicable with hierarchical subdivisions. For each block, formulae shall be given to describe unambiguously the input/output response and initial state.

(2)风机的控制行为必须用一张电路模块图描述,如有可能,应尽量分级细分。每一电路模块图都应有输入/输出响应和原始状态的公式的明确说明。

(3)    The block circuit diagram shall include the input and output signals of the controller and the interconnections of the blocks used. Signal paths shall be provided with arrows to indicate their direction of effect. Each signal in the block circuit diagram shall be named unambiguously.

(3)电路模块图应包括控制器的输入和输出信号,以及所使用的各模块间的内部连接。用箭头表示信号的作用路径方向。电路图中,每一个信号都应有明确无误的名称。

(4)    The functional relationship between inputs and outputs of the individual blocks of the controller shall be described in the form of discrete-time static or dynamic model equations (for linear blocks, Z-transfer functions are permissible) with statement of the time step.

(4)在规定的时间步中,以离散时间静态或动态的模型方程式(对于线性区域来说,Z-传递函数是可行的)的形式,来描述控制器中各个功能块中的输入与输出之间的函数关系。

Note:

The signals and parameters needed for the function of the controller can be given with their units in summarized form in a table.

注意:

控制器所需的功能信号和参数。可以和它们的模块以摘要的形式记录在一个表格中。

 

2.2 Control and Safety System

2.2 控制和安全系统

2.2.1 General

2.2.1 概述

The control concept and the safety concept are established in the design phase within the framework of the system concept of the wind turbine, to optimize operation and keep the installation in a safe condition in the event of a malfunction. The safety concept shall take into account the relevant operating values such as admissible over speed, decelerating moments, short-circuit moments, permissible vibrations etc. (see Section 2.2.3).

控制观念和安全观念是建立在设计阶段的基础上的,且在风力发电机组系统观念框架内,以优化运行,使机组有一个安全的环境条件,即便是在故障情况下也是如此。安全观念必须考虑相关的运行参数,比如允许的过速,减速力矩,短路力矩,允许的振动等。(见 2.2.3)。

2.2.2 Definitions

2.2.2 定义

2.2.2.1 Control concept and control system

2.2.2.1 控制观念和控制系统

    1) By control concept is meant a procedure aimed at operating the wind turbine efficiently, as free from mal-functions as possible, lightly stressed and safely. The logic of the procedure is generally incorporated into a programmical unit, which forms part of the overall control system.

    1)控制观念是一种程序,可使风力发电机组有效的运行,尽可能的保证无故障出现,轻微承载以及安全。程序的逻辑通常和可编程单元合二为一,由此形成整个控制系统的一部分。

    2) With the aid of the control system, the wind turbine shall be controlled, regulated and monitored. The control system shall keep the installation within the normal operating limits.

    2)在控制系统的帮助下,可以对风力发电机组控制,调节和监控。控制系统可以使机组保持在正常的运行限值下。

2.2.2.2 Safety concept and safety system

2.2.2.2 安全观念和安全系统

    1) By safety concept is meant a part of the system concept intended to ensure that in the event of a mal-function the wind turbine remains in a safe condition. Malfunctions occur, it is the task of the safety system to ensure that the installation behaves in accordance with the safety concept.

    1)安全观念是系统观念的一部分,可确保在故障状态时,机组仍能处于安全情况。故障出现时,安全系统的任务就是确保机组行为符合安全观念的要求。

    (2) The safety system is a system logically super-ordinate to the control system, brought into action after safety-relevant limiting values have been exceeded or if the control system is incapable of keeping the installation within the normal operating limits. The safety system is intended to keep the installation in a safe condition.

    (2)安全系统在逻辑上是高于控制系统的一种系统,在安全相关的限值参数被超过后或者控制系统不能保证机组在正常限值范围内运行时,而采取保护行动的一种系统。安全系统的目的也是使机组处于安全的条件下。

2.2.2.3 Braking system

2.2.2.3 制动系统

    (1) The braking system is a system which by its nature is capable of reducing the rotor rotational speed and keeping it below a maximum value or braking it completely to a standstill. A braking system includes all components which on demand contribute towards braking the rotor.

    (1)制动系统的本质是降低风轮旋转速度,使其速度处于最大值以下,或者干脆使其停止。制动系统涵盖所有对风轮制动起作用的部件。

(2) A braking system may e.g. be of aerodynamic, mechanical, electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic type. Such a system may also utilize more than one of the modes of operation mentioned, or consist of several subsystems.

(2)制动系统可以是气动学制动、机械制动、电气制动、液压制动或者气动制动类型。同时也可以是以上提到的多种制动模式的组合,或由几个子系统组成。

2.2.2.4 Clearance

2.2.2.4 清除(复位)

By clearance is meant a human intervention in the sense of the execution of a necessary repair or elimination of the cause of a malfunction, followed by release of the wind turbine for operation. Clearance necessitates the presence and active involvement of a sufficiently qualified person on site at the wind turbine.

在必须进行的修理或者故障排除作业上,清除意味着人力作用,随后应该让风机停止运行。风机必须现场清除,人员必须具备资质。

2.2.2.5 Rotational speed of the rotor

2.2.2.5风轮旋转速度

   

    Fig. 2.2.1 Sketch of the rotational speed ranges, using the example of a variable-speed wind turbine

    图2.2.1 旋转速度图,以变速风机为例

    (1) The operating range comprises the rotational speed range of the rotor from the “minimum operating speed” n1 to the “maximum operating speed” n3, within which the rotational speed lies under normal operating conditions. The operating range may include ranges acceptable only for a short time (e.g. exclusion of resonance speeds).

    (1)运行范围为风轮转速最低转速n1到最高转速n3,在此范围内,转速处于正常运行工况下。运行范围可包括允许的短时的超速(比如,除共振速度外)。

    (2) The “rated speed” nr is the rotational speed at the rated wind speed Vr (see Section 2.2.2.7, para 2).

    (2)额定转速nr指的是额定风速Vr下对应的转速(见2.2.2.7)。

    (3) The “set value of the speed controller” n2 is used for variable-speed plants in the operating state above the rated wind speed Vr (see Section 2.2.2.7, para 2). In this operating state, the rotational speed will deviate upwards or downwards from n2 only by the standard tolerance.

    (3)对于变速风机,当在高于额定风速Vr运行时,使用速度控制器设定值n2 ,(见2.2.2.7)。在这种状态下,转速可以以允许的容差在n2上下波动。

    (4) The “cut-out speed” n4 is the rotational speed at which an immediate shutdown of the wind turbine must be affected by the control system.

    (4)切出速度n4,指的是当转速达到这个速度时,通过控制系统,风机立即停机。

    (5) The “activation speed” nA is that rotational speed at which immediate triggering of the safety system must occur.

    (5)触发速度nA,指的是转速达到这个速度时,安全系统立即触发。

    (6) The “maximum overspeed” nmax may never be exceeded, not even briefly.

    (6) 任何时刻都不得超过最大过速nmax,即使是短时间的过速也不允许。

    (7) When defining the rotational speeds, the interaction of the individual components, in particular the vibratory behavior (e.g. natural frequencies) of the rotor blades, the drive train and the tower shall be taken into account.

    (7)当定义转速时,各部件之间的相互影响,特别是叶片振动(比如基频),传动链和塔架等必须考虑进去。

2.2.2.6 Power

2.2.2.6 功率

(1) The “rated power” Pr is the maximum continuous electrical power (effective power) at the output terminals of the wind turbine (following a possible inverter system and before a possible transformer) resulting from the power curve under normal operating conditions. At this power, the generator or the generator/inverter system yields its rated electrical power on average as specified.

    (1)从正常运行条件下的功率曲线上,可知额定功率Pr指的是风机输出端最大连续电功率(有效功率)(下面可能有变流系统或者在这之前有变压器)。在这个功率点上,发电机或者发电机/变流系统获得指定的平均额定电功率。

    Fig. 2.2.2 Sketch of a power curve

    图2.2.2 功率曲线图

     (2) The “over-power” PT is the effective electrical power at the output terminals of the wind turbine at which the control system must initiate a power reduction.

    (2)过载功率PT是风机输出端的有效电功率,此时,控制系统必须立即减小功率输出。

    (3) The “activation power” PA is the instantaneous effective electrical power at the output terminals of the wind turbine at which immediate triggering of the safety system must occur.

(3)触发功率PA指的是风机输出端即时有效电功率,此时,安全系统必须马上触发。

2.2.2.7 Wind speed

2.2.2.7 风速

    (1) The “cut-in wind speed” Vin is the lowest mean wind speed at hub height (for the “normal wind profile model NWP”, see Section 4.2.3.1.2) at which the wind turbine starts to produce power.

    (1)切入风速Vin是轮毂高度的最低平均风速(对于正常风廓模型NWP,见第4.2.3.1.2部分),此时风机开始输出电能。

    (2) The “rated wind speed” Vr is the lowest mean wind speed at hub height (for the “normal wind profile model NWP”, see Section 4.2.3.1.2) at which the wind turbine produced the rated power according to Section 2.2.2.6, para 1).

    (2)额定风速Vr指的是轮毂高度的最小平均风速(对于正常风廓模型NWP,见第4.2.3.1.2部分),此时,风机开始输出第2.2.2.6 段1的额定功率。

    (3) The “cut-out wind speed” Vout is defined as the maximum wind speed at hub height (averaging period to be defined by the manufacturer) at which the wind turbine must be shut down.

    (3)切出风速指的是轮毂高度最大风速(时间由制造商定义),此时风机必须停机。

    (4) The “short-term cut-out wind speed” VA is the instantaneous wind speed at hub height (averaging period to be defined by the manufacturer) above which the wind turbine must be shut down immediately.

    (4)短期切出风速VA指的是轮毂高度即时风速(时间由制造商定义),超过此风速时,风机必须立即停机。

2.2.2.8 Wind direction and yaw error

2.2.2.8 风向和偏航误差

    (1) The yaw error ϕ is the angle between the wind direction (instantaneous direction of attack of the wind at hub height) and the rotor axis of the wind turbine, measured in the horizontal plane.

    (1)偏航误差角ϕ指的是风向和风机转轴之间的夹角(轮毂高度风攻角的即时方向),在水平面测得。

    (2) The “cut-out yaw error” ϕA is the largest admissible yaw error (averaging period to be defined by the manufacturer) above which the wind turbine must be shut down immediately.

    (2)切出偏航误差角ϕA最大的许可偏航误差(时间由制造商定义),超过这个角度,风机必须立即停机。

2.2.2. 9 External power supply, mains failure

2.2.2.9 外部电源,主电网失效

    (1) By external power supply is meant the supply of any kind of primary or auxiliary power to automation, control or mechanical systems of the wind turbine from outside. If energy is obtained by internal conversion of wind energy or kinetic energy of the rotor using the wind turbine’s own devices and then utilized, this does not count as external power supply. Supply of electricity from batteries, mains or diesel generators is external power supply. Similarly, the external supply of auxiliary forms of power (such as control air, hydraulic system fluid etc.) belongs to the same class.

    外部电源,指的是利用任何初级或者辅助电源来进行自动控制,操作的电源,或指风机外部的机械系统的电源。如果能量是通过风能内部转换获得或者使用风机自身设备获得的转子动能,则不能算作外部电源。从蓄电池,主电网或者柴油发电机等获得的电源,也是外部电源。类似的,辅助形式的外部电源也属于同一类型(如压缩空气,液压系统等)。

    (2) Failure of the external power supply (mains failure) with duration of up to one hour is regarded as a normal external condition. Furthermore, mains failure with a duration exceeding one hour up to duration of 7 days shall be considered and regarded as a fault.

    (2)外部电源失效(主电源),持续时间一小时内,可视为正常外部条件。此外,主电网断电超过一小时,甚至持续七天,则必须加以考虑,并视为故障。

2.2.2.10 Locking devices

2.2.2.10 锁定装置

Locking devices are devices which secure the moving parts (rotor, yaw system, blade pitching system, ...) already braked to a standstill.

锁定装置,顾名思义,用来锁定已经制动的可移动部件的装置(转子,偏航系统,叶片变桨系统)

2.2.3 Requirements and design concept

2.2.3 要求和设计观念

2.2.3.1 General safety concept

2.2.3.1一般安全观念

The safety system shall fulfill the following principal criteria:

安全系统必须满足以下基本原则:

2.2.3.1.1 Single failure

2.2.3.1.1 单个失效

The failure of a single component which is relevant for the functioning of the safety system, e.g. a sensor or braking system, shall not lead to failure of the safety function. The simultaneous failure of two independent components is classed as an unlikely event and therefore need not be considered. Where components depend on one another, their simultaneous failure shall be classed as a single failure. The individual components of the safety system shall be of the highest specification as regards their availability and reliability.

与安全系统功能相关的单个部件的失效,比如传感器或者制动系统,应不会导致安全功能的失效。两个独立部件同时失效,一般认为不大可能,因此不必考虑。当部件之间相互作用,他们同时失效则被认为是单个部件的失效。安全系统的单个部件,考虑到其可用性和可靠性,必须是最规范的。

2.2.3.1.2 Redundancy

2.2.3.1.2 冗余

    (1) With regard to its design concept, the safety system shall be totally separate from the control system.

    (1)依据设计理念,安全系统必须和控制系统完全分开。

    (2) The safety system shall have access to at least two mutually and totally independent braking systems.

    (2)安全系统至少必须有通路到达两套相互和完全独立的制动系统。

Note:

注意:

By independence is meant that “faults with a common cause” shall rigorously be avoided in the system-engineering design stage. Accordingly, the failure of a single component shall not result in the failure of more than one braking system and thus the loss of the entire safety function.

独立,指的是“普通原因的失效”,系统工程设计阶段就不得出现。因此,单个部件的失效不得导致多个制动系统的失效,不得使整个安全功能失效。

2.2.3.2 Control and safety systems

2.2.3.2 控制和安全系统

.2.2.3.2.1 Control system

2.3.3.2.1 控制系统

The control system shall be so designed that it keeps the wind turbine within the normal operating limits under all the external conditions specified in Section 4.2, or returns it to operation within these limits. Mal-functions (such as over-power, over speed and over-heating) shall be detected by the control system and followed by appropriate measures. The control system shall obtain its information from all of the sensors provided for the wind turbine and shall be able to actuate at least two braking systems. Upon activation of the braking systems by the safety system, the control system shall subordinate itself.

控制系统的设计,必须使风机能够在所有4.2部分规定的外部条件下保持正常的运行限值,或者使风机回到这些限值范围内。故障(比如过载功率,过速和过热)必须能被控制系统检测到,并随之采取适当的措施。控制系统必须从风机上所有的传感器中获得信息,且必须能够激活至少两套制动系统。一旦通过安全系统激活制动系统,控制系统必须实现自控制。

2.2.3.2.2 Safety system

2.2.3.2.2 安全系统

    (1) The limiting values triggering the safety system shall be defined so that the limit values of the design basis are not exceeded and the wind turbine is not endangered, but also so that the control system is not disturbed unnecessarily by the safety system.

    (1) 必须事先定义限值,来触发安全系统,使得设计的限值不被超过,风机不处于危险之中,而且控制系统也不会有来自安全系统不必要的干扰。

    (2) The functions of the control system shall be subordinated to the requirements of the safety system.

    (2)控制系统的功能必须服从安全系统的要求。

    (3) The safety system shall have higher-priority access to at least two braking systems and to equipment for grid disconnection of the generator and, once triggered by deviations from the normal operating values, shall carry out its task without delay, keep the wind turbine in a safe condition and in general initiate deceleration of the rotor with the aid of all the braking systems at its disposal.

    (3)安全系统至少对两套制动系统有优先权,对发电机从电网断开的设备有优先权,一旦被偏离正常运行的参数触发,安全系统必须立即执行其任务,使风机处于安全条件下,并且调控制动系统,使风轮开始减速。

Note:

注意:

The separation from the grid need not be carried out at the instant of activation of the safety system. Speeding-up of the wind turbine and operation of the generator as a motor shall be avoided in any case.

从电网断开的动作,不必在安全系统触发的瞬间执行。风机加速和发电机作为电动机运行在任何情况下都必须避免。

    (4) If the safety system has been activated, a clearance according to Section 2.2.2.4 is required in any case. This clearance of the safety system shall be independent of the control system and may in no case be activated automatically. If the safety system was triggered before grid loss, then clearance may not be activated automatically after the return of the grid.

    (4)如果安全系统被激活,任何时侯都要进行第2.2.2.4部分要求的清除(复位)。安全系统的清除将独立于控制系统,并且任何时侯不得自动激活。如果安全系统在失去电网之前触发,则在恢复电网之后,清除可以不必自动触发。

2.2.3.3 Braking systems

2.2..3.3制动系统

2.2.3.3.1 Braking system requirements

2.2.3.3.1 制动系统要求

    (1) There shall be at least two mutually independent braking systems by means of which the rotor can be decelerated or brought to a standstill at any time.

    (1)必须具备至少两套相互独立的制动系统,通过制动系统,可以使风轮在任何时候减速或停机。

    (2) In the case of load shedding and a failure of one of the braking systems at the same time, the other braking system(s) must be able to keep the rotor below the maximum overspeed nmax (Section 2.2.2.5, para 6) (see Section 4.3.3.2).

    (2)在失去负载以及一个制动系统同时失效的情形下,另一个制动系统必须能够使风轮转速在最大过速nmax以下(见2.2.2.5,段6)(见第4.3.3.2部分)。

    (3) It shall be possible to bring the rotor to a stand-still (see Section 2.3.2.14 and Sections 4.3.3.5 and 4.3.3.8).

    (3)可以使风轮停止转动(见第2.3.2.14和4.3.3.5、4.3.3.8部分)。

2.2.3.3.2 Wind turbine with mechanical brake and non-independent blade pitching system

2.2.3.3.2机械制动和非独立变桨系统的风轮

    (1) This Section 2.2.3.3.2 applies for wind turbines in which one braking system is a mechanical rotor brake and the other braking system is a blade-pitch system, insofar as the blade-pitch system is so constructed that a malfunction in a single component can prevent the pitching of all rotor blades (non-independent blade-pitch system).

    (1)本部分内容适用于采用一个机械转子制动的风机,该类型风机的其它制动系统是叶片变桨系统,在某种程度上来讲,叶片变桨系统是这样构造的,当单个部件发生故障后,可以防止所有叶片变桨(非独立变桨系统)。

    (2) If it can be assured that

    – the blade pitch system is constantly monitored by a suitable control device which shuts down the wind turbine if the pitching has ceased to function properly, and

    – the rotor blades and the pitch system are so designed that, in the event of a breakdown in the mechanism or leaks in the pitch hydraulics, the blades are unable to generate a torque which would accelerate the rotor beyond the maximum overspeed nmax (Section 2.2.2.5, para 6) (see Section 4.3.3.2),

    (2)必须确保:

    – 叶片变桨系统始终为适当的控制设备监控,该控制设备可以在变桨无法正常工作而停止时关闭风机。

    –叶轮和变桨系统必须设计如下:在机械故障或者变桨液体渗漏而崩溃时,叶片不得产生使风轮超过最大过速nmax的力矩。

it may be assumed that the failure of this braking system (DLC 2.2, Section 4.3.3.2) will occur only at wind speeds up to Vr (Section 2.2.2.7, para 2). Here the fluctuations (gusts) of the wind need to be considered. The magnitude of the gust during operation VB = 2 * σ1 shall be considered, where:

这里,可以假设制动系统的失效只在风速达到额定风速Vr时出现(见第2.2.2.7部分 段2)。此时,必须考虑到风速(阵风)的波动。运行VB = 2 * σ1时阵风的量级必须考虑,此处:

VB = magnitude of the gust,

VB =阵风量级

σ1 = standard deviation according to Section 4.2.3.1.3.

依据第4.2.3.1.3部分,σ1 =标准偏差

    (3) The gust shape shall be assumed according to Section 4.2.3.2.4. Here Vcg shall be replaced by VB and the rise time is T = 2.5 s.

    (3)阵风的形态可以按照第4.2.3.2.4部分来假设。此处Vcg必须被VB替代,上升时间T = 2.5 s。

Note:

注意:

It shall be observed that the rotor blades may be in a pitch position, in which, due to an unfavourable angle of attack, they may generate a torque in excess of the maximum braking moment of the mechanical brake. In this case, the brake shall not become a fire hazard for the wind turbine.

风轮必须在变桨位置,由于不利的攻角,风轮可以产生一个超过机械制动最大制动力矩的力矩。这种情况下,制动不得产生危害风机的火灾危险。

2.2.3.3.3 Selection of the braking principle

2.2.2.3.3 制动原理的选择

At least one of the braking systems should operate on an aerodynamic principle, and as such act directly on the rotor. If this requirement is not met, at least one of the braking systems provided shall act on the parts (hub, shaft) of the wind turbine that rotate at rotor speed.

至少有一个制动系统依据气动学原理来运行,直接作用在转子上。如果此条件没有满足,则至少有一个制动系统作用在风机部件上(轮毂,轴),使风轮在转速范围内旋转。

2.2.3.3.4 External power supply

2.2.3.3.4外部电源

    (1) The braking systems shall be so designed that they remain operable if the external power supply (see Section 2.2.2.9) fails. If this requirement cannot be met by all braking systems within the selected system concept, then additional measures that ensure the safety level of this Guideline in an equivalent manner shall be implemented and verified.

    (1) 制动系统的设计,必须保证在外部电源失效的情况下,制动系统仍能运行。如果在所选择的系统理念中,所有制动系统都无法满足这个要求,则必须采取其它等效措施来保证本指南规定的安全等级。

    (2) If auxiliary power supply from accumulators (e.g. from the hydraulic unit or from batteries) is necessary for the functioning of the brakes, it shall be automatically monitored that a sufficient amount of energy is available for at least one emergency braking. If the function of the accumulator depends on its tempera ture, then the accumulator temperature shall also be monitored. If these monitoring tasks cannot be carried out continuously, then automatic tests shall be performed at least weekly. The wind turbine shall be shut down immediately if the monitoring or a test reveals a negative result. Furthermore, Section 2.3.2.10 shall be taken into account.

    (2)从保证制动的功能来说,如果有必要存在蓄电池等辅助电源,则必须自动监控蓄电池是否有足够的电源,以保证至少一次的紧急制动。如果蓄电池的电量取决于温度,则温度也必须被自动监控。如果监控不能持续的进行,则必须每周进行一次自动试验。如果监控或者试验得出一个负电平(结果),则风机必须立即关停。此外,必须考虑第2.3.2.10部分的内容。

2.2.3.4 Torque-limiting components

2.2.3.4 力矩限制部件

If components are provided to limit torque, any mechanical brake fitted shall be located between the torque-limiting device and the rotor hub.

如果有限制力矩的部件,则任何安装的机械制动部件必须处在力矩限制部件和轮毂之间。

2.3 Protective and Monitoring Devices

2.3 保护和监控设备

2.3.1 General

2.3.1 概述

    (1) The safety system is activated when limiting values are exceeded. This initiates a braking process. The requirements on when a malfunction is to activate the safety system directly and/or how it is to be treated by the control system are given below.

    (1)安全系统在限值被超过时启动。此时,制动过程开始。在故障直接激活安全系统时的要求,和/或者故障如何被控制系统处理时的要求在下面的内容中叙述。

    (2) In Appendix 2.A of this chapter, the interaction of control system and safety system is represented graphically as a typical example.

    (2) 本节附录 2A,控制系统和安全系统如何相互作用,用典型例子的图示表述。

2.3.2 Limiting values, control system

2.3.2 限值,控制系统

2.3.2.1 General

2.3.2.1 概述

In the cases defined here in Section 2.3.2, the wind turbine is permitted to start up again automatically without clearance following a turbine shutdown. This automatic startup is limited to a few times every 24 hours for most transgressions of the limiting values. It is in keeping with this section that the transgressions counts for the different limiting values can be undertaken independently of each other.

本章中,在风机关机后,允许自动重启而无需复位。这样的自动重启,每24小时仅允许几次,这是因为限值超标的原因。不同限值的超标数可以各自出现,但必须符合本节内容的要求。

2.3.2.2 Rotational speed

2.3.2.2转速

2.3.2.2.1 Measurement of rotational speed

2.3.2.2.1转速测量

The rotational speed shall be picked up at least twice by separate systems, and supplied at least twice to the control system and at least once to the safety system. At least one of the speed sensors shall be mounted on a component of the wind turbine that runs at rotor speed.

转速必须至少被不同的系统检测两次,至少送给控制系统两次,至少送给安全系统一次。至少有一个速度传感器安装在随风轮旋转的部件上。

Note:

注意:

Any automatic triggering of the blade tip brakes shall be reported to both the safety system and the control system. If that is not possible, it shall be ensured that the blade tips do not engage again and the rotor rotational speed then exceeds nA again (see Section 2.2.2.5, para 5).

任何叶尖制动器的触发必须报告给安全系统和控制系统。如果不可能这么做,则必须保证叶尖不会再运行,转子转速不得再次超过nA(见第2.2.2.5部分,段5)。

2.3.2.2.2 Operational reliability of the measurement system

2.3.2.2.2检测系统的运行可靠性

    (1) As a matter of principle, the speed measurement systems shall meet the same requirements as regards functioning and reliability as the braking equipment itself. In particular, the arrangement on the structure shall meet this requirement when considering fault sequences.

    (1)和制动设备的要求一样,速度检测系统必须满足可靠性和功能性的要求,这是一个基本的原则。此外,结构上的布置也必须满足故障顺序的要求。

    (2) The control system shall continuously monitor the plausibility of at least two of the measured speeds with regard to each other in all operating conditions of the wind turbine.

    (2)在风机所有运行条件下,控制系统必须连续监控至少两组采到的速度数据之间的合理性。

2.3.2.2.3 Excessive speed and the reaction of the control system

2.3.2.2.3过速和控制系统的反应

    (1) If the rotor speed exceeds the operating range (Section 2.2.2.5, para 1) (n > n3), then the control system shall initiate a deceleration of the rotor.

    (1)如果转速超过运行范围(见第2.2.2.5部分,段1)(n > n3),则控制系统开始使风轮减速。

    (2) If the rotational speed n4 (Section 2.2.2.5, para 4) is exceeded, then the control system shall shut down the wind turbine.

    (2)当转速n4 (见第2.2.2.5部分,段 4)超标,则控制系统将关闭风机。

    (3) If the monitoring of the mutual speed plausibility detects an error, the wind turbine shall be shut down.

     (3)如果监控的速度之间出现错误,风机将关机。

    (4) Following a shut-down in accordance with Section 2.3.2.2.3, an automatic restart may take place without clearance if this is provided for in the system concept and there is no fault in the installation. The automatic start-up shall be limited to three times every 24 hours.

    (4)根据第2.3.2.2.3部分的要求关机后,如果在系统设计时考虑了自动重启,且设备没有缺陷,则可以自动重启而无需复位。自动重启的次数,24小时内不得超过3次。

2.3.2.2.4 Rotational speed exceeding activation speed

2.3.2.2.4 转速超过触发速度

If the activation speed nA (Section 2.2.2.5, para 5) is exceeded, the safety system shall be activated immediately.

如果触发速度nA (第2.2.2.5部分,段5)被超过,则安全系统立即被触发。

Note:

注意:

The maximum overspeed nmax (see Section 2.2.2.5, para 6) should not exceed 1.2 x n2 (see Section 2.2.2.5, para 3), since this value covers the standard overspeed test according to international generator standards.

最大过速nmax (见 2.2.2.5部分,段6)不得超过1.2倍n2 (见第2.2.2.5部分,段3),因为这个值包含了依据国际发电机标准的标准过速试验。

2.3.2.2.5 Behaviour following activation of the safety system

2.3.2.2.5安全系统动作后的表现

    (1) If the safety system has responded after excessive speed according to Section 2.3.2.2.4, the maximum overspeed nmax (Section 2.2.2.5, para 6) shall not at any time be exceeded (not even briefly). This shall be taken into consideration particularly for aerodynamic brakes and for brakes whose action is staggered in time.

    (1)如果安全系统在(第2.3.2.2.4部分)过速之后有反应,则最大过速nmax (第2.2.2.5部分,段6)任何时侯都不得被超过(哪怕是暂时的)。在空气动力学制动和制动器交错动作时,这个必须特别加以考虑。

    (2) The safety system shall shut down the wind turbine immediately and bring it into a safe condition.

    (2)安全系统将立即关闭风机并使之处于安全环境下。

2.3.2.3 Power

2.3.2.3 功率

2.3.2.3.1 Measurement of power

2.3.2.3.1功率量

    (1) Power measurement shall be regarded as an operational measurement and treated accordingly. In the case of plants with a rated power of 1 MW or more, an additional monitoring of the power for transgression of the activation power PA as per Section 2.3.2.3.3 shall be provided. Recourse may be had to other physical parameters, as long as these have a clear and recognized relationship to the power. In this event, the relationship between the operationally sensed substitute parameter and power shall be established by measure-ment during the test phase and recorded in a suitable fashion (e.g. in the form of a performance graph).

    (1)功率量被视作一个运行参数,以及随后的待处理参数。在功率为1MW或超过1MW的风机上,必须安装一个附加的第2.3.2.3.3部分规定的功率监控器,以监控触发功率PA 是否超标。

    (2) The measured power in combination with the rotational speed is regarded as a measure of the average loading of the whole plant.

    (2) 测量到的功率值结合转速,一般被认为整个机组的平均负载。

2.3.2.3.2 Measurement of power for the control system

2.3.2.3.2控制系统-功率测量

    (1) Generally, the electrical power (effective power) shall be used as the measurement parameter. If the system concept includes the possibility of the overpower PT according to Section 2.2.2.6, para 2, being exceeded, the power shall be picked up as a control parameter and supplied to the control system.

    (1)通常,电功率(有效功率)作为测量参数。如果系统理念中,包含了过载功率PT(见第2.2.2.6,段2)超标的可能性,则功率必须作为控制参数选出,并送给控制系统。

    (2) The power measuring equipment shall be capable of picking up both average values (about 1–10 minute mean) and short-term power peaks (sampling rate at least once per second).

     (2)功率测量设备必须有能够选出平均值(大约平均1-10分钟)和短期功率峰值的能力(取样率至少每秒钟一次)。

2.3.2.3.3 Monitoring the power for the safety system

2.3.2.3.3安全系统-功率监控

    (1) The power shall be monitored continuously for exceeding of the instantaneous activation power PA. In the case of plants with a rated power of 1 MW or more, this monitoring and the measurement devices needed for the task shall be provided in redundancy to the power measurement of the control system and shall act directly on the safety system.

    (1)必须连续监控功率是否超过即时触发值PA。如果机组功率为1MW或者超过1MW,则控制系统的监控和测量设备必须有冗余,且监控和测量设备直接作用于安全系统。

    (2) An exception can be made from this provision if the exceeding of PA is not possible according to the system concept or if the required redundancy in power measurement is given in some other manner.

    (2)如果系统理念中,不存在    PA超标的可能,或者有其它方式的冗余功率测量,则本规定例外。

2.3.2.3.4 Exceeding the over-power PT or the rated power Pr

2.3.2.3.4过载功率PT超标或者额定功率Pr超标

    (1) If the power exceeds the over-power PT (Section 2.2.2.6, para 2), then the corresponding measures shall be initiated automatically by the control system without delay. The long-term average of the power shall not exceed the rated power Pr (Section 2.2.2.6, para 1).

    (1) 如果功率超过过载功率PT (第2.2.2.6部分,段2),则控制系统必须自动触发,毫不迟疑的采取相应的措施。长期的平均功率不得超过额定功率Pr (见2.2.2.6,段1)。

    (2) The measures to be taken depend on the system concept. The power shall be reduced accordingly or the wind turbine shall be shut down.

    (2)所采取的措施取决于系统理念。功率应随之减小,或者风机直接关机。

    (3) The instantaneous value and the mean value for the over-power PT shall be defined by the manufacturer together with the averaging periods, and taken into account appropriately in the load calculation (fatigue loads). During the prototype test, it shall be shown that the defined values are met.

    (3)过载功率PT 的即时值和平均值以及平均周期由制造商定义,并且在负荷计算中予以适当的考虑(疲劳载荷)。在样机试验时,所定义的值必须满足。

Note:

注意:

As a rule, PT should lie directly above the rated power Pr or be equal to it.

按照常理,PT应在额定功率Pr之上,或者等于额定功率Pr。

2.3.2.3.5 Exceeding the activation power PA

2.3.2.3.5 超过触发功率PA

    (1) If the instantaneous power exceeds the activation power PA (Section 2.2.2.6, para 3), protective measures shall be initiated automatically without delay by the safety system. The actual measures depend on the system concept. In all cases, the wind turbine shall be shut down and brought into a safe condition.

    (1)如果即时功率超过触发功率PA (第2.2.2.6部分,段3),则安全系统必须自动的毫不迟疑的采取保护措施。实际的措施取决于系统理念。任何情况下,风机必须关机或者处于一个安全的环境条件。

    (2) The value for the activation power PA shall be defined by the manufacturer of the wind turbine and taken into account correspondingly in the load calculation.

    (2)触发功率PA值由风机制造厂定义,并相应的在负荷计算中考虑。

2.3.2.3.6 Automatic start-up

2.3.2.3.6 自动启动

If the wind turbine was shut down after exceeding the over-power PT on the basis of Section 2.3.2.3.4, an automatic re-start may take place without clearance if this is provided for in the system concept and there is no fault in the installation. The automatic start-up shall be limited to three times every 24 hours.

在第2.3.2.3.4部分的基础上,如果风机在过载功率PT被超过后关机,且在系统理念中有自动启动的概念,以及机组不存在故障,则风机可以自启动而无需复位。

2.3.2.4 Wind speed

2.3.2.4风速

2.3.2.4.1 Requirements

2.3.2.4.1要求

If safe operation of the wind turbine depends on wind speed measurements, or if wind speed is one of the in-put parameters to the control system, a reliable and appropriate means of measuring wind speed shall be provided.

如果风机的安全运行取决于风速,或者风速是控制系统的一个输入参数,则必须有一个可靠而适当的风速测量方法。

2.3.2.4.2 Measurement of wind speed

2.3.2.4.2 风速的测量

    (1) If measurement of wind speed is necessary as described in Section 2.3.2.4.1, this requirement can be met by measuring the speed either directly or via another parameter with a clear and recognized relation-ship to it, which is then processed. As a matter of principle, suitable sensing points and measurement techniques shall be selected for operational measurements. The wind speed at hub height-with flow as undisturbed as possible-is to be considered as relevant measurement parameter.

    (1)如第2.3.2.4.1部分所述,如果必须测量风速,则这个要求可以直接通过测量速度来满足,或者通过测量其它与风速有明确关系的参数来实现。作为一个基本原则,测量必须选择适当的传感点和测量技巧。轮毂高度的风速应尽可能不受扰动,且被视为相关的测量参数。

    (2) Selecting a measurement method which leads to a hazardous uncertainty in case of icing necessitates a continuous plausibility check of the measured values (e.g. by comparison with other measurands related to wind speed) and equipment of the sensor with a suit-able heating which will be activated in case of the danger of icing.

    (2)在结冰情形下,如选择了一个可导致危险和不确定的测量方法,则必须对测量值进行连续的合理性检查(例如,和其它风速相关的测量值对比),在有结冰危险时,选择合适的带加热的传感设备。

2.3.2.4.3 Exceeding the cut-out wind speed

2.3.2.4.3 超过切出风速

If a cut-out wind speed Vout according to Section 2.2.2.7, para 3, has been used as a basis for the wind turbine design, the plant shall be shut down immediately and automatically by the control system if this limiting value is exceeded.

如果依据第2.2.2.7部分,段3的切出风速Vout 作为风机设计基础,则当限值超过时,则控制系统应该立即自动关停风机。

2.3.2.4.4 Exceeding the short-term cut-out wind speed

2.3.2.4.4超过短期切出风速

If a cut-out wind speed has been used as a basis for the wind turbine design, the plant shall be shut down immediately and automatically by the control system if the short-term cut-out wind speed VA according to Section 2.2.2.7, para 4, is exceeded.

如果以切出风速作为风机设计基础,依据第2.2.2.7部分,段4的短期切出风速VA超过限值时,则控制系统应该立即自动关停风机。

2.3.2.4.5 Automatic start-up

2.3.2.4.5自动启动

If the wind turbine was shut down after exceeding a cut-out wind speed, an automatic restart may take place without clearance if the wind speed has fallen to a permissible value according to the system concept and there is no fault in the installation.

如果风速超过切出风速而停机,依据系统理念,在风机不存在故障情况下,当风速重新跌回至许可风速时,风机可以重新启动而无需复位。

2.3.2.4.6 Control during faulty wind speed measurements

2.3.2.4.6错误风速测量时的控制

If the control system detects that the wind speed measurements reveal faulty results, the wind turbine shall be shut down.

如果控制系统侦测到风速测量有错误,则风机应该关机。

2.3.2.5 Shock

2.3.2.5振动

2.3.2.5.1 General

2.3.2.5.1 概述

By shock is meant forced movements and accelerations of the wind turbine, caused by damage, imbalance or other influences (e.g. earthquakes).

振动,指的是风机被强制的移动,加速,这是由于损坏,失衡或者其它影响造成的,(比如地震)。

2.3.2.5.2 Measurement of shock

2.3.2.5.2振动测量

Monitoring for shock shall take place continuously, with the measurement being compared with the limiting value. The sensor shall be located at nacelle height, eccentric to the tower axis. As the shock to be sensed is generally noticeable as a movement of the whole nacelle, measurement techniques sensing the total movement shall be used. If the nacelle movement is not transmitted to the tower, a suitable relative movement may be sensed as a substitute.

振动的监控必须连续进行,并将结果和限值比较。传感器必须处于机舱高度,并偏离塔架轴线。作为整个机舱运动,待测量的振动往往是显而易见的,因此必须采用感知整个运动的测量技术。如果机舱的运动没有传递到塔架,作为替代,则必须测量适当的相对运动。

2.3.2.5.3 Operational safety

2.3.2.5.3运行安全

The sensitivity of the sensor shall be matched to the conditions prevailing. It shall be protected effectively against all external influences, including interference by unauthorized persons. It is recommended that the sensitivity be set when the installation is running.

传感器的灵敏度必须和主要环境条件匹配。传感器必须有效的防止所有外界影响的干扰,包括未授权人员的干扰。建议在机组运行时对灵敏度进行设置。

2.3.2.5.4 Exceeding the limiting value

2.3.2.5.4超过限值

If the shock actually measured exceeds the limiting value (to be determined beforehand), the safety system shall be activated and shall shut down the plant.

如果振动测量值超过限值(事先测量得到),安全系统必须动作,关闭机组。

2.3.2.6 Operational vibration monitoring

2.3.2.6运行振动监控

2.3.2.6.1 General

2.3.2.6.1 概述

    (1) By vibration is meant forced movements of the wind turbine, caused by imbalance and by operating the plant in the vicinity of a natural frequency of components. Imbalance may point to damage, malfunction (e.g. asymmetric pitching of the rotor blades) or other external influences (e.g. icing-up of the rotor blades).

    (1)振动指的是风机被迫运动,是由失衡,机组在部件基频附近运行造成的。失衡将会导致机组损坏,导致故障(比如叶片变桨不对称)或造成其他外部影响(比如叶片结冰)。

    (2) The continuous monitoring of vibrations in accordance with this Section (Operational vibration monitoring), is one of the prerequisites for operation of the wind turbine in the resonance range close to the natural frequencies of the tower (see Section 6.6.5.1, para 5).

    (2)依据本章的要求,连续的振动监控是风机运行在靠近塔架基频共振范围的先决条件(见第6.6.5.1部分,段5)。

    (3) In the case of wind turbines for which aerodynamically related blade vibrations cannot be ruled out, a continuous monitoring of these vibrations according to this Section 2.3.2.6 may be necessary (in addition to the vibration monitoring of the tower, if applicable).

    (3)风机与叶片气动学相关的振动不能不考虑,对这些振动的连续监控是必须的,参见本章节第2.3.2.6部分(如果可以,包含塔架的振动监控)。

2.3.2.6.2 Measurement of vibrations

2.3.2.6.2振动的测量

    (1) The vibrations shall be measured constantly and their magnitude compared with the limiting values to be determined beforehand.

    (1)振动必须经常性测量,其量级与限值的比对必须预先确定。

    (2) The averaging periods in the signal processing and sensitivities, as well as the mounting points of the sensors, shall be so selected that all loading-relevant movements of the components to be monitored are measured reliably.

    (2)传感器的信号处理周期,灵敏度以及安装位置的选择,必须使所有与部件负载相关的运动都能监控到,并且保证测量可靠。

    (3) The measurement and signal processing can be performed in the control system.

    (3)测量以及信号处理可以在控制系统中完成。

2.3.2.6.3 Determination of the limiting values

2.3.2.6.3限值的确定

    (1) The limiting values for the vibration monitoring shall be so determined that an alarm is triggered when the loads and/or movements defined in the design of the wind turbine for the components to be monitored are exceeded. The vibration level determined during the design of the wind turbine shall be taken as the basis.

    (1)振动监控的限值的确定,必须保证所监控的部件负载和/或运动超标时,警报可以触发,这些负载和运动在风机设计时定义。

    (2) Criteria shall be defined for shortterm monitoring (e.g. measurement period up to a few seconds) and for long-term monitoring (e.g. measurement period in the range of several minutes).

    (2)短期监控(比如测量周期在秒级)和长期监控(测量周期在分钟级)的标准必须定义好。

Note:

注意:

It is regarded as prudent to define these criteria in relation to the condition of the plant (e.g. wind speed, rotational speed, or power).

对于机组的情况(比如风速,转速,或功率),在定义这些标准时必须谨慎。

The effectiveness of these criteria shall be verified, e.g. through simulations.

这些标准的有效性应该经过核实,比如通过仿真来核实。

Note:

注意:

For these simulations, malfunctions (e.g. mechanical and / or aerodynamic imbalance of the rotor, displacement of natural frequencies) can be defined, depending on the system concept and tower design. In the simulations, it shall then be shown that these malfunctions are detected by the vibration monitoring with the selected sensitivities, averaging periods and limiting values, without exceeding the loads defined for the design.

这些仿真,故障(比如机械和/或风轮的气动失衡,基频的替换)取决于系统理念和塔架设计。在仿真中,通过选定灵敏度,平均周期和限值的振动监控器,故障的侦测应该可以体现出来,而不会超过设计时规定的负荷。

2.3.2.6.4 Exceeding the limiting value

2.3.2.6.4超过限值

If the currently measured vibrations exceed one of the defined limiting values, the wind turbine shall be shut down by the control system.

如果当前测量的振动值超过规定的限值,则控制系统应让风机关机。

2.3.2.6.5 Automatic start-up

2.3.2.6.5自动启动

Following a shut-down in accordance with Section 2.3.2.6.4, an automatic restart may take place without clearance if this is provided for in the system concept and no fault can be detected in the installation. The automatic start-up shall be limited to three times every 24 hours.

在根据第2.3.2.6.4部分的内容关机后,如果系统理念中有自动重启功能,且机组没有故障,则机组可以自动重启而无需复位。自动重启在24小时内仅允许3次。

2.3.2.7 Mains failure/load shedding

2.3.2.7 主电网失效/负载脱落

2.3.2.7.1 General

2.3.2.7.1 概述

Should a wind turbine lose its load (e.g. the mains load), the rotor may speed up very rapidly. This endangers individual components and the structural integrity of the entire plant.

如果风机负载脱离(比如主电网负荷),风轮转速则会急剧加速。这将危及单个部件,危及整个机组结构完整性。

2.3.2.7.2 Operation following mains failure

2.3.2.7.2主电网失效后的运行

If there is a mains failure, or if a wind turbine operating in stand-alone mode has lost its load, this shall be detected by the control system and the safety system, and the wind turbine shall be shut down.

如果主电网失效,或者风机运行在空载模式,控制系统和安全系统应该检测到,风机随之关机。

2.3.2.7.3 Operation after restoration of mains

2.3.2.7.3主电网恢复后的运行

Mains failure is considered an external event. For that reason, the wind turbine may be started automatically by the control system once the mains grid is capable of taking power again.

主电网失效是外部因素。由此,在主电网重新加载后,在控制系统控制下,风机应该可自动重启。

2.3.2.8 Short circuit

2.3.2.8短路

2.3.2.8.1 Requirements

2.3.2.8.1要求

The wind turbine shall be equipped with suitable short-circuit protection devices (see Section 8.7.2).

风机必须装备合适的短路保护设备(见8.7.2).

2.3.2.8.2 Operation following a short circuit

2.3.2.8.2短路后的运行

    (1) If the protection devices detect a short circuit, they shall respond and simultaneously trigger the safety system.

    (1)如果保护装置检查到短路情况,则它们应该迅速响应,并同时触发安全系统。

    (2) The safety system shall shut down the wind tur-bine and bring it into a safe condition.

    (2)安全系统将关闭风机并使之处于安全状态。

2.3.2.9 Monitoring the generator temperature

2.3.2.9监控发电机温度

2.3.2.9.1 Requirements

2.3.2.9.1要求

The temperature in the windings of the generator shall be monitored to ensure that it is kept within the allowable operating limits. To achieve this aim, a self-monitoring measurement system that functions reliably and maintenance-free shall be selected.

发电机绕组的温度必须加以监控,以确保其在运行范围内。为达到这个目的,必须选择一个功能可靠的免维护自监控测量系统。

2.3.2.9.2 Limiting values

2.3.2.9.2限值

The limiting value for the temperature in the windings is generally laid down according to information from the manufacturer based on the class of insulation used (see Section 8.2.6).

绕组温度限值通常在制造商规定的限值以下,这些限值是基于绝缘等级而采用的(见第8.2.6部分)。

2.3.2.9.3 Operation after excess temperature

2.3.2.9.3超温之后的运行

If the permissible winding temperature has been exceeded, the power output shall be reduced, to give the generator a chance to cool down. This is a task for the control system.

如果绕组温度超标,则电机输出功率应该降低,以使发电机温度下降。这个由控制系统来完成。

Note:

注意:

Even exceeding the permissible temperature limit only slightly reduces the life of the generator; exceeding it substantially leads to its destruction in a short time. Excess current or power may result in mechanical as well as electrical overloading of components. Short-term excesses of rated operating values shall be reduced by the control devices. If the maximum permissible limiting values are exceeded, the wind turbine shall be shut down.

即使轻微的温度超标,也会缩短发电机的使用寿命;短时严重的超温,则会损坏发电机。过大的电流和功率可以导致机械和电气部件的过载。短期的超过额定功率将由控制系统来调节。如果许可的限值被超过,则风机应该关机。

2.3.2.10 Condition monitoring of the braking systems

2.3.2.10制动系统环境监控

2.3.2.10.1 General

2.3.2.10.1 概述

The braking systems of a wind turbine are of particular relevance as regards safety. Mechanical braking systems are subject to a high degree of wear. For that reason, the service brake should as far as possible operate on a low-wear or no-wear principle (see Section 2.2.3.3.3). Should the design of the braking system of a wind turbine permit the possibility of increased, unnoticed wear or a malfunction in the necessary accumulator (see Section 2.2.3.3.4) resulting in failure to respond when required, then monitoring of the condition of the braking equipment shall be provided.

风机的制动系统事关安全。机械制动承受很大程度的磨损。因此,所采用的制动片应该尽可能在低磨损或者无磨损的原则下运行(见第2.2.3.3.3部分)。假如风机制动系统的设计允许细微增加的磨损的可能,或者蓄电池必需的时故障(或者必须的累加器故障导致要求的反应失效),从而导致要求的反应失效,则要求具有制动情况监控设备。

2.3.2.10.2 Measurement parameters

2.3.2.10.2测量参数

The brake lining thickness and/or the brake slack in mechanical brakes, and also, depending on the design concept, the time to effect the braking or the power consumption, are all factors that can be used as relevant measurement parameters for condition monitoring. Accumulators shall be monitored in accordance with their design (see Section 2.2.3.3.4).

机械制动上,取决于设计理念的制动器衬套厚度和/或制动缓解等,制动影响时间或者功率消耗是全部要素,这些要素可以用作环境监控中相关的测量参数。蓄电池也要依据他们的设计加以监控(见第2.2.3.3.4部分)。

2.3.2.10.3 Safety requirement

2.3.2.10.3安全要求

If condition monitoring is provided, it shall meet the same safety standards as the braking system itself (i.e. the brake shall respond if the monitoring fails). The response of the condition monitoring equipment shall be such that possible progressive defects are detected early-at any rate before the required braking power can no longer be achieved-and countermeasures are initiated.

如果有环境监控,则其必须满足安全要求,如同制动系统本身一样(比如在监控失效时,制动系统也有反应)。环境监控设备的响应,要求能及早发现那些可能的渐进式的缺陷,在要求的制动功率不能再达到之前,以任何速率传递,同时采取反制措施。

2.3.2.10.4 Operation after a fault is detected

2.3.2.10.4故障侦测后的运行

If the condition monitoring detects that a braking system is not ready for operation, the wind turbine shall be shut down by the control system. An unambiguous report of the failure detected shall be made. An automatic restart of the plant is only permissible after clearance (see Section 2.2.2.4).

如果环境监控设备侦测到制动系统不能为运行而整备好,在控制系统的控制下,风机应关机。同时出具一个明确的故障侦测报告。机组自动重启只能在复位以后才能开始。

2.3.2.11 Cable twisting

2.3.2.11 电缆扭曲

2.3.2.11.1 Requirements

2.3.2.11.1 要求

If operation of the wind turbine may result in twisting of flexible cables, particularly the connecting cables between rotating parts (nacelle) and parts of the fixed structure (tower or foundation), technical measures shall be taken to prevent destruction of these cables by excessive twisting.

若风机运行会引起柔性电缆扭曲,尤其是旋转部件(机舱)和固定结构部件(塔架或基础)之间的连接电缆,那就要通过技术措施来防止由于过渡扭曲而引起的电缆损坏。

2.3.2.11.2 Measurement parameter

2.3.2.11.2 测量参数

Direction-dependent counting or a similar procedure for identifying the total revolutions of the nacelle shall be regarded as an appropriate measurement parameter for the twisting of flexible cables.

用于确定机舱总转数的方向数或类似程序应被作为柔性电缆扭曲的测量参数。

2.3.2.11.3 Limiting value

2.3.2.11.3 限值

The maximum acceptable degree of twisting for the flexible cables shall be defined by the manufacturer or supplier.

柔性电缆最大可接受扭曲度应由制造商或供货商定义。

2.3.2.11.4 Operation after excessive twisting

2.3.2.11.4 过渡扭曲后运行

    (1) The monitoring equipment for twisting shall always respond before the maximum acceptable degree of twisting is reached.

    (1)扭曲监控设备在达到最大可接受扭曲度之前都应保持响应。

    (2) In the case of wind turbines with active yaw systems, untwisting of the cables can be undertaken automatically by the control system through appropriate operation of the yaw drive. During the untwisting, the plant shall be shut down. If the flexible cables have been untwisted automatically, the wind turbine can be restarted automatically without clearance.

    (2)在风机配备有效偏航系统情况下,解缆操作可以由控制系统通过偏航驱动的适当操作来自动执行。在解缆过程中,机组应是关闭的。若柔性电缆已被自动解开,风机就会无复位的自动重启。

    (3) If the largest threshold value for automatic untwisting is exceeded without any response from the control system, the safety system shall shut down the wind turbine and bring it to a safe condition.

(3)若已超出自动解缆最大极限值,而没有得到来自控制系统的任何响应,安全系统就会关闭风机且使之置于安全状态下。

Note:

注意:

To prevent possible danger to the wind turbine struc-ture, it may be advisable to suppress the automatic untwisting at extremely high wind speeds (e.g. V ≥ 0.8 * Vref) and to have the yaw system control the plant automatically until these wind speeds have dropped to an acceptable level.

为防止风机结构上可能的危险,建议在风速极高情况下(如:V≥0.8*Vref)抑制解缆操作,且应使偏航系统自动控制机组,直到风速降到一个可接受的级别。

    (4) In the case of installations without active yaw systems, further rotation of the nacelle shall be prevented after the maximum acceptable degree of twisting (see Section 2.3.2.11.3) has been reached. The wind turbine shall be brought into a safe condition.

    (4)在没有安装有效偏航系统情况下,在达到最大可接受扭曲度(见第2,3,2,11,3节)后,应防止机舱进行更大程度的转动。风机应置于安全状态下。

2.3.2.12 Yaw system

2.3.2.12 偏航系统

2.3.2.12.1 Measurement of wind direction

2.3.1.12.1 风向测量

If the measurement of wind direction is necessary for the control of the wind turbine, the measurement equipment (e.g. windvane) shall be constantly monitored in a suitable way and equipped with a proper heating which shall be activated upon the danger of icing.

对于风机的控制,如有必要进行风向测量时,测量设备(如:风向标)就应以适当的方式长期监控风向,且测量设备应配备适当的加热器,以备有结冰危险时使用。

2.3.2.12.2 Operation for faulty wind direction measurements

2.3.2.12.2风向测量失效后的操作

If the control system detects that the wind direction measurements yield faulty results, the wind turbine shall be shut down.

若控制系统检测到风向测量反馈回的错误结果,就应关闭风机。

2.3.2.12.3 Active yaw system

2.3.2.12.3 主动偏航系统

    (1) In the case of nacelles with active yaw systems, it shall be ensured that even straightforward manual maloperation cannot produce conditions which put the integrity of the wind turbine at risk as a result of stresses not included in the calculations. The drive of nacelles with active yaw systems shall be provided with a braking system. Before starting, it shall be established unequivocally that the position of the nacelle conforms to the wind direction of the design.

(1)在机舱配备主动偏航系统情况下,应确保即使是简单的人为不正确维护,也不会产生使风机的完整性承受未计算强度的危险。配备主动偏航系统的机舱驱动应有一套制动系统。在启动前,应确认机舱方向与设计的风向一致。

Note:

This can be of particular importance for instance after a lengthy standstill, if since the time of shutting down the wind has veered something like 180° and the wind direction is not followed with the wind turbine at standstill.

注意:

这一点对与于长期停止后情况是相当重要的,如果从风机关闭时开始,风向已变换了180°左右,且风向并没有随着风机静止而静止。

    (2) If a cut-out yaw error ϕA (see Section 2.2.2.8, para 2) was defined in the system concept, the wind turbine shall be shut down immediately when this value is exceeded. Once the yaw error is again within the permissible range, the wind turbine can be re-star-ted automatically without clearance.

    (2)若切出偏航误差ϕA(见第2.2.2.8节,第2段)以系统概念定义,那么当超出该值时风机就应立即关闭。一旦偏航误差再次在允许范围内,风机就会无复位的自动重启。

2.3.2.12.4 Passive yaw system

2.3.2.12.4 被动偏航系统

In case of a passive yaw system, it shall be established unequivocally before start-up that the position of the nacelle conforms to the wind direction of the design.

在配备被动偏航系统情况下,在启动前应确认机舱位置与设计的风向是否一致。

2.3.2.13 Frequency and voltage

2.3.2.13 频率及电压

    (1) In the case of wind turbines operating in parallel with the mains, a fixed mains frequency is assumed. As a rule, the mains frequency is imposed on the wind turbine. Specific monitoring and control is necessary to the extent required by the relevant grid operator to maintain satisfactory parallel operation. Apart from that, Section 4.2.5 shall apply.

    (1)在风机与主电网并行运行情况下,应设定固定主电网频率。原则上,主电网频率是强施于风机上的。在某种程度上,相关的电网操作者为保持满意的并行运行会要求进行特殊的监控和控制。除此以外,第4,2,5节也应采用。

    (2) In wind turbines operating in a stand-alone mode, on the other hand, the frequency is often determined by the wind turbine itself. Whether and to what extent frequency variations can be tolerated should be determined by taking the individual service into consideration. In general, however, designs should not be based on deviations greater than ± 5 % or ± 10 % for short periods.

    (2)当风机运行在脱机模式下,另一方面,频率通常是由风机自身来决定的。要决定频率变化是否或在什么程度下能够被承受,应将它作为独立操作来考虑。然而通常情况下,是不应该以短期大于± 5 % 或 ± 10 %的偏差为设计基础的。

2.3.2.14 Emergency push button

2.3.2.14紧急按钮

2.3.2.14.1 General

2.3.2.14.1 概要

As a means for manual intervention, at least one Emergency push button shall be provided each in the nacelle and at the control and regulating unit. The buttons shall be so arranged and constructed that they can be operated as their function requires and cannot be diverted to other purposes.

作为手动干涉的一种方式,每个机舱及控制和调节单元应至少提供一个紧急按钮。按钮在布置和构造上应满足能在需要时实现其功能,不能转作其他用途。

2.3.2.14.2 Requirements

2.3.2.14.2 要求

Activation of Emergency Off is intended to divert danger from persons or the wind turbine itself. This means the safety system must bring all movements of the wind turbine to a standstill in the shortest possible time. The primary aim is not to effect the gentlest, but rather the most rapid, braking to a standstill that is compatible with the strength of the installation. Accordingly, any time delays that may be present shall be bypassed, provided this can be justified from the viewpoint of strength.

紧急关闭的激活是为了将危险从人员或风机自身转移开。这就意味着安全系统必须在尽可能最短的时间内将风机的所有运作置于静止。主要目的并不在于是否温和,但宁愿是最快速的制动来达到静止目的,这一点是与机组强度一致的。因此,假设可以从强度的观点来证明这点,那就可以忽略可能会出现的任何时间延迟。

2.3.2.14.3 Operation after activation of Emergency push button

2.3.2.14.3 紧急按钮激活后操作

Operation for triggering of Emergency push button may be identical, for instance, with operation in the event of the safety system being triggered due to excessive vibration (see Section 4.2.3.2.5). Following engagement, the Emergency push button shall remain in the engaged position.

紧急按钮触发后机组的运行与其他情况触发后机组的运行或许一样,如,由超常振动触发安全系统后机组的运行(见第4.2.3.2.5节)。其后过程中,紧急按钮都应保持在工作位置。

2.3.2.15 Faults in machinery components

2.3.2.15 机械部件故障

    (1) Machinery components shall be monitored according to the state of the art. Such monitoring equipment shall cover physical parameters which can be used as a measure of reliable operation (e.g. gear oil pressure, gear oil temperature, bearing temperatures etc.). The extent to which such equipment shall be provided depends essentially on the overall design concept.

    (1)机械部件应采用最新技术进行监控。这些监控设备应该包含衡量可靠运行的物理参数(如:齿轮油压,齿轮油温,轴承温度等)。设备所能达到的程度本质上要取决于总体的设计概念。

    (2) When limiting values are exceeded, the control system shall shut down the wind turbine. Depending on the type of malfunction, the wind turbine may then restart automatically or be restarted by remote intervention from the control room. The automatic startup shall be limited to three times every 24 hours.

    (2)当超出极限值时,控制系统应关闭风机。根据故障类型,风机可以自动重启或者由控制室遥控重启。每24小时内自动重启次数限制为3次。

    (3) In the design of the control system concept, the structural integrity of the wind turbine shall be given priority over its availability.

    (3)在控制系统概念设计中,风机的结构完整性应比其实用性给予优先考虑。

2.3.2.16 Operation of a cold plant

2.3.2.16冷机组运行

If a relationship between component temperature and the maximum admissible power transmission is specified by the manufacturer for certain components of the wind turbine (e.g. gearing, generator, transformer), then a corresponding “warm-up phase” shall be provided in the control system of the plant. The power provided by the rotor shall at no time be permitted to be larger than the maximum specified for the momentary temperature by the manufacturer of the corresponding component.

对于风机某些部件(如:传动装置,发电机,变压器),若部件温度和最大允许电力输送之间的关系是由制造商定义的,那么相应的“预热阶段”也应该由机组的控制系统提供。转子提供的功率是绝对不允许大于相应部件制造商定义的瞬间温度最大值功率的。

2.3.2.17 Operativeness of the control system and data storage

2.3.2.17 控制系统和数据存储的可操作性

    (1) The control concept is defined as the procedure for operating the wind turbine under the specified conditions (see Section 2.2.2.1). If the control is carried out by a programmable control system, this takes over control and regulation of the wind turbine.

    (1)控制概念指在指定条件下风机运行的程序(见第2.2.2.1)。若控制是通过可编程控制系统来实现的,那么这就接管了对风机的控制和调节。

    (2) If the control system detects that it has lost control of the wind turbine (e. g. a demanded blade pitch is not executed), the control system shall trigger the safety system.

    (2)若控制系统检测到它已无法对风机进行控制(如:要求的变桨未执行),控制系统就应触发安全系统。

    (3) The control system shall be monitored by a suitable arrangement (e.g. watch-dog). If this is triggered, the plant shall be shut down immediately. If this monitoring arrangement responds more than once in 24 hours, the safety system shall also be triggered.

    (3)控制系统应采用适当的设备进行监控(如:监控器)。若该设备被触发,机组应立即被关闭。若该监控设备在24小时内响应次数超过一次,那就应触发安全系统。

    (4) If the safety system is triggered in the case of plants with a rated power of 1 MW or more, the control system shall store the data of the final operating conditions.

    (4)在机组额定功率为1MW或更大情况下,安全系统触发时,控制系统应储存最终运行状态的数据。

2.3.2.18 Automatic detection of icing-up

2.3.2.18 结冰自动检测

2.3.2.18.1 Ice sensor

2.3.2.18 1 结冰传感器

A device which automatically detects the formation of ice at a component of the wind turbine can be certified.

自动检测风机部件上冰的形成的设备应该进行验证。

2.3.2.18.2 Operation on detection of icing-up

2.3.2.18.2 检测到结冰后的运行

If icing-up is detected, the control system shall shut down the wind turbine to prevent pieces of ice from being hurled off the rotating parts. An automatic restart of the plant is only permissible if it is possible to ensure that all rotating parts are free of ice. Otherwise clearance according to Section 2.2.2.4 is required be-fore re-starting.

若检测到结冰,控制系统应关闭风机以防止冰屑被抛离转动部件。只有在确保所有的转动部件上冰已经融化情况下,才会允许机组自动重启。否则,在重启之前,就必须根据第2.2.2.4部分的要求除冰。

2.3.3 Safety equipment (locking devices) for maintenance

2.3.3 维护的安全设备(锁定设备)

2.3.3.1 Requirements

2.3.3.1要求

A wind turbine shall be equipped with at least one lock or equivalent device each for rotor, yaw system and blade-pitch system (see Section 2.2.2.10), with the function of locking these against movement. Automatic activation (automatic engagement on reaching standstill) is not necessary in general.

风机应为每个转子,偏航系统和变桨系统至少配备一个锁定或等效的设备(见第2.2.2.10节),起到锁定这些设备防止移动的功能。通常是不需要自动激活的(在达到静止时自动啮合)。

Note:

注意:

Braking equipment may not, as a rule, be regarded as constituting the required locking device at the same time. Deviation from this rule is possible in exceptional cases, provided the system design ensures that work on each part of the braking system can be carried out safely. Work on a braking system can be carried out safely only if all rotation of the parts of the wind turbine which the system is intended to brake can be reliably prevented.

原则上,制动设备不会同时被认作是锁定设备的组成部分。在特殊情况下,假设系统设计能确保制动系统每个部件的工作可以安全运行,那么背离该原则也就是可能的。如果系统要制动的所有旋转部件,都能被可靠制动,那么在制动系统上的工作就可以安全进行。

2.3.3.2 Design of the locking devices

2.3.3.2 锁定设备的设计

    (1) The locking devices shall be so designed that even with a brake removed they can reliably prevent any rotation of the rotor, nacelle or the rotor blade.

    (1)锁定设备应设计如下:即使在移除制动设备后,仍能可靠保证的机舱或风轮不旋转。

    (2) The rotor lock shall be arranged to act on the drive train near the hub, and shall have form-fit. The design of the rotor lock shall be based on Section 7.5.3.4.

    (2)转子锁在布置上应靠近轮毂,以便作用于传动链,且应该有好的安装外形。转子锁定设计应基于第7.5.3.4节。

2.3.3.3 Safety requirements

2.3.3.3 安全要求

The design of the locking device shall be based on the assumption that people deliberately enter, remain in and work in a hazardous area with confidence in the functioning of the device. Particularly high requirements shall thus be imposed as regards the operational safety, quality and accessibility of the device, as well as its engagement with the parts of the wind turbine being locked (e.g. rotor blades, hub, shaft).

锁定设备的设计应基于下述假设:人员在对该设备功能完全放心条件下,可故意进入,逗留及工作在危险区域。考虑到设备的运行安全性,质量和设备的可靠近程度,以及其和风机锁定部件的接口(如:转子,轮毂,轴),必须有特别高的要求。

2.3.3.4 Activation of the locking device

2.3.3.4 锁定设备的激活

If work is to be carried out on those parts of the wind turbine which rotate during operation, the locking device shall always be activated. It shall also be activated even if the installation is held stopped by the brake capable of slowing the rotor to a standstill, or any azimuth brakes that may be provided. The operator shall be explicitly alerted to this safety measure. An appropriate note shall be inserted in the operating manual.

若在运行中转动的风机部件上工作,锁定设备应一直保持激活。甚至在机组施加了制动,使转子减速直到静止时,或者有任意方位制动的情况,都能被激活。操作员应对此安全措施保持高度警惕。在操作手册中应插入相应的注释。

Appendix 2.A Interaction of the Control and Safety Systems

附件2.A 控制系统和安全系统的相互作用

This sketch visualizes schematically the interaction of the control and safety systems and is intended to be helpful for understanding the wording in Chapter 2. However, the wording of Chapter 2 is binding.

该简图纸象示意了控制系统和安全系统的交互作用,且有助于对第2章文字的理解。然而,第2章的文字是有效的。

Fig. 2.A.1 Interaction of the control and safety systems

Fig.2.A.1 控制系统和安全系统交互作用

3.1Requirements for Manufacturers    168

3.1制造要求    168

3.1.1General    168

3.1.1概述    168

3.1.2Works equipment    168

3.1.2加工设备    168

3.1.3Personnel    170

3.1.3人员    170

3.1.4    Shop approval    170

3.1.4车间认证    170

3.1.4.1 General    170

3.1.4.1概述    170

3.1.4.2 Application for approval    170

3.1.4.2认证申请表    170

3.1.4.3 Approval procedure, period of validity    171

3.1.4.3认证程序,有效期    171

3.1.4.4 hange in approval conditions    172

3.1.4.4认证条件的变更    172

3.2Quality Management    172

3.2质量管理    172

3.2.1 General    172

3.2.1概论    172

3.2.3Requirements for the quality management system    175

3.2.3质量管理系统要求    175

3.2.4Certification of the QM system    175

3.2.4质量管理体系认证    175

3.3 Materials    177

3.3 材料    177

3.3.1 General requirements    177

3.3.1 总体要求    177

3.3.1.1 General    177

3.3.1.1 概述    177

3.3.1.2 Material tests    178

3.3.1.2 材料的测试    178

3.3.1.3 Corrosion protection    181

3.3.1.3 防腐蚀    181

3.3.1.3.1General    181

3.3.1.3.1概述    181

3.3.1.3.2Design for corrosion protection    181

3.3.1.3.2防腐蚀的设计    181

3.3.1.3.3 Material selection    182

3.3.1.3.3材料选择    182

3.3.1.3.4 Coatings    182

3.3.1.3.4 涂覆    182

3.3.2 Metallic materials    183

3.3.2 金属材料    183

3.3.2.1 Structural steels    184

3.3.2.1结构钢    184

3.3.2.2 Cast steel    185

3.3.2.2铸钢    185

3.3.2.3 Stainless steels    186

3.3.2.3不锈钢    186

3.3.2.4 Forging steels    187

3.3.2.4锻钢    187

3.3.2.4.1 Standards    187

3.3.2.4.1标准    187

3.3.2.4.3 Delivery condition, heat treatment    189

3.3.2.4.3交货条件,热处理    189

3.3.2.4.4 General forging quality    190

3.3.2.4.4 一般锻件质量    190

3.3.2.4.5 Mechanico-technological testing    191

3.3.2.4.5机械试验    191

3.3.2.4.6 Non-destructive testing    192

3.3.2.4.6 非破坏性试验    192

3.3.2.6 Aluminium alloys    197

3.3.2.6 铝合金    197

3.3.2.6.1 Wrought alloys    197

3.3.2.6.1 精炼合金    197

3.3.2.6.2 Cast alloys    198

3.3.2.6.2 铸造合金    198

3.3.3Fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP)    199

3.3.3纤维增强材料    199

3.3.3.1 Definitions    199

3.3.3.1 定义    199

3.3.3.2 General    200

3.3.3.2 概述    200

3.3.3.3 Reaction resin compounds    200

3.3.3.3反应树脂混合物    200

3.3.3.4 Reinforcing materials    202

3.3.3.4增强材料    202

3.3.3.5 Core materials    204

3.3.3.5核心材料    204

3.3.3.6 Prepregs    205

3.3.3.6预浸料    205

3.3.3.7 Adhesives    205

3.3.3.7粘合剂    205

3.3.3.8 Approval of materials    206

3.3.3.8材料的批准    206

3.3.4Wood    207

3.3.4 木材    207

3.3.4.1 Types of wood    207

3.3.4.1木材的类型    207

3.3.4.2 Material testing and approval    207

3.3.4.2材料测试和批准    207

3.3.4.3 Glues and adhesives    207

3.3.4.3 胶水和添加剂    207

3.3.4.4 Surface protection    208

3.3.4.4表面防护    208

3.3.4.5 Wood preservatives    208

3.3.4.5木材防腐剂    208

3.3.4.6 Mechanical fasteners    209

3.3.4.6机械固定件    209

3.3.5 Reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete    209

3.3.5 钢筋混凝土和预应力混凝土    209

3.3.5.1 General    209

3.3.5.1 概述    209

3.3.5.2 Standards    209

3.3.5.2标准    209

3.3.5.3 Raw materials for concrete    210

3.3.5.3混凝土原材料    210

3.3.5.3.1 Cement types    210

3.3.5.3.1 水泥型号    210

3.3.5.3.2 Concrete aggregate    211

3.3.5.3.2混凝土沙石    211

3.3.5.3.3 Added water    211

3.3.5.3.3 添加水    211

3.3.5.3.4 Admixtures    212

3.3.5.3.4附加剂    212

3.3.5.3.5 Additives    212

3.3.5.3.5 添加剂    212

3.3.5.4 Building materials    213

3.3.5.4 建筑材料    213

3.3.5.4.1 Concrete    213

3.3.5.4.1 混凝土    213

3.3.5.4.2 Concrete-reinforcing steel    214

3.3.5.4.2 钢筋混凝土    214

3.3.5.4.3 Prestressing steel and prestressing procedure    214

3.3.5.4.3 预加强筋和预加强工艺    214

3.3.5.4.4 Grouting mortar    215

3.3.5.4.4 水水泥砂浆    215

3.3.5.5 Durability of the concrete    216

3.3.5.5 混凝土的耐久性    216

3.4Production and Testing    218

3.4 生产和测试    218

3.4.1General    218

3.4.1 概述    218

3.4.2Welding    218

3.4.2 焊接    218

3.4.2.1 Prerequisites of the works    218

3.4.2.1 工作前提    218

3.4.2.2 Welders, welding supervision    219

3.4.2.2 焊工,焊接监督    219

3.4.2.3 Welding method, welding procedure tests    220

3.4.2.3 焊接方法,焊接工艺试验    220

3.4.2.4 Welding fillers and auxiliary materials    220

3.4.2.4焊接填充物和辅助材料    220

3.4.2.5 Weld joint design    221

3.4.2.5 焊缝设计    221

3.4.2.6 Execution and testing    222

3.4.2.6 执行和测试    222

3.4.3Laminating fibre-reinforced plastics    225

3.4.3 复合纤维增强塑料    225

3.4.3.1 Requirements for manufacturers    225

3.4.3.1 制造商要求    225

3.4.3.2 Laminating workshops    226

3.4.3.2 层压车间    226

3.4.3.3 Store-rooms    227

3.4.3.3 储藏室    227

3.4.3.4 Processing requirements    228

3.4.3.4 工艺要求    228

3.4.3.5 Building-up the laminate    229

3.4.3.5 铺层    229

3.4.3.6 Curing and tempering    231

3.4.3.6 固化和回火    231

3.4.3.7 Sealing    232

3.4.3.7 密封    232

3.4.4Adhesive bonding    232

3.4.4 胶接    232

3.4.4.1 Adhesive joints    232

3.4.4.1 胶粘接合    232

3.4.4.2 Assembly process    233

3.4.4.2 组合过程    233

3.4.5Manufacturing surveillance for FRP    235

3.4.5 FRP制造监督    235

3.4.5.1 General    235

3.4.5.1 概述    235

3.4.5.2 Incoming inspection    236

3.4.5.2 来料检验    236

3.4.5.3 Production surveillance    237

3.4.5.3 生产监督    237

3.4.5.4 Component checks    238

3.4.5.4 部件检查    238

3.4.6Wood processing    239

3.4.6 木材加工    239

3.4.6.1 Manufacture of wooden rotor blades    239

3.4.6.1 木制叶片的制造    239

3.4.6.1.1General    239

3.4.6.1.1 概述    239

3.4.6.1.2Mould requirements    240

3.4.6.1.2 模具要求    240

3.4.6.1.3Preparing the wood    240

3.4.6.1.3 木材准备    240

3.4.6.1.4Layer build-up and bonding    241

3.4.6.1.4 层的建立和粘结    241

3.4.6.1.5Wood preservation    242

3.4.6.1.5 木材防腐剂    242

3.4.6.1.6Surface protection    243

3.4.6.1.6 表面保护    243

3.4.6.1.7Blade connections    243

3.4.6.1.7 叶片连接    243

3.4.6.2 Manufacturing surveillance of wooden rotor blades    244

3.4.6.2 木制叶片的制造监测    244

3.4.6.2.1General    244

3.4.6.2.1 概述    244

3.4.6.2.2Incoming inspection    244

3.4.6.2.2 进厂检查    244

3.4.6.2.3Visual checks    245

3.4.6.2.3 视觉检查    245

3.4.7Making and working the concrete    245

3.4.7混凝土的制作和工作    245

3.4.7.1 Proportioning and mixing he raw materials    245

3.4.7.1 原材料的配料和混合    245

3.4.7.2 Transport, pouring and compacting    245

3.4.7.2 运输,浇注和压实    245

3.4.7.3 Curing    246

3.4.7.3 固化    246

3.4.7.4 Concreting in cool or hot weather    246

3.4.7.4 在冷或热天气情况下的凝固    246

3.4.7.5 Formwork and its supports    247

3.4.7.5 模板及其支撑    247

3.4.7.5.1Forms    247

3.4.7.5.1 窗体    247

3.4.7.5.2Stripping    247

3.4.7.5.2 脱模    247

3.4.7.6 Quality control    248

3.4.7.6 质量控制    248

3.4.7.6.1General    248

3.4.7.6.1 概述    248

3.4.7.6.2Tests during construction    249

3.4.7.6.2 建造过程中的测试    249

3.4.7.6.3 Conformity checks    251

3.4.7.6.3 一致性检查    251

3.4.7.6.4 Inspection and maintenance of the completed structure    252

3.4.7.6.4 整个结构的检查和维护    252

 

 

3.1Requirements for Manufacturers

3.1制造要求

3.1.1General

3.1.1概述

(1)Manufacturers shall be suitable for the work to be carried out as regards their workshop facilities, manufacturing processes as well as training and capabilities of the personnel. Proof of this may be provided by means of a documented and certified quality management system (see Section 3.2). If required (see Section3.4.2.1, para 1, and Section 3.4.4.1, para 1), GL Wind will issue a shop approval on request of a manufacturer, provided the approval conditions are fulfilled.

(1)    制造商的工厂设施,制造工艺以及人员的培训与能力都要能胜任所承担的工作。可以通过的档案和认证的质量管理体系(见3.2节)来证明其软硬件符合要求。如果需要(见3.4.2.1节第1段和3.4.4.1节第一段),在调查制造商后,假如认证条件符合要求,则GL wind将发布制造商资质认证书。

(2)It is the responsibility of the manufacturer to observe and conform to this Guideline, the pertinent laws and ordinances, technical regulations, standards and data sheets, such as those from the chemicals industry etc. (see also Section 3.2.1, para 2).

(2)    制造商有责任遵守本指南的要求,遵守相关法律和法令,技术规范,标准和记录表,还有那些化工行业的要求等(见3.2.1第2段)。

(3)Insofar as the requirements for the manufacturers set out below (especially as regards quality control) are not further defined, these shall be defined in accordance with the quality management requirements (see Section 3.2). Details shall be agreed with GL Wind for each individual case.

(3)对于厂商的要求,以下的要求(尤其注意质量控制)没有进一步说明,这些都将要按照质量管理要求来定义(见3.2节)。每一特殊情况的细节要取得GL wind同意。

3.1.2Works equipment

3.1.2加工设备

(1)The manufacturers shall have at their disposal suitable facilities and equipment for faultless execution of the work. External facilities may be included for consideration only if these meet the prerequisites for competent execution and are available without restriction.

(1)制造商要有合适的工具和设备来完美的完成工作。外部设备可以考虑包括在内,只要这些设备可以满足制造要求并可以无限制的使用。

(2)Equipment and facilities include, on the scale necessary for the manufacture in question, for instance the following:

– workshops, roofed-over working areas as required, equipment for assembly sites

– store-rooms for materials

– drying facilities (e.g. for wood, welding fillers etc.)

– lifting gear for assembly and transport

– processing machinery and tools

– tools and equipment for welding and cutting

– appliances for joining-up, and for welding, laminating, bonding and gluing

– air-condition monitoring instruments

– facilities for preheating and heat treatment

– test equipment and materials plus means for their calibration

(2)关于设备和设施,制造商必须具备以下条件:

-车间,必须有屋顶,设备组装设备。

-原材料仓库

-烘干设备(例如,(用于)木材和焊接填料等)

-用于组装和运输的起重设备

-加工机械与工具

-用于连接,焊接,层压,粘接和胶接的连接设备

-空气条件监控设备

-预热和热处理设备

-试验设备和材料的校准

3.1.3Personnel

3.1.3人员

(1)    The personnel employed by the company shall be such as to ensure that the components can be competently prepared, manufactured and tested to the extent necessary. GL Wind may require proof of the technical qualifications of the staff.

(1)    公司所雇用人员要能达到部件可以正确的整备,制造和试验的程度。GL wind可能要求制造商提供员工的技术资格证明。

(2)    The respective areas of responsibility shall be laid down and arrangements made for deputies for those responsible.

(2)    要列出不同区域的负责并指定这些人的代表。

3.1.4    Shop approval

3.1.4车间认证

3.1.4.1 General

3.1.4.1概述

Shop approval is required for welding, laminating and bonding. Shop approvals by other organizations can be recognized after consultation with GL Wind. GL Wind reserves the right to demand approval for other manufacturing methods or working techniques.

对于焊接,层压和粘接的车间需要认证。经过与GL wind公司协商,由其它组织认证的车间也可以得到GL wind的同意。对于其它制造方法或加工技术,GL wind保留对其认证的权利。

3.1.4.2 Application for approval

3.1.4.2认证申请表

(1)    Application for approval shall be made on a form provided. Any additional information, documents and explanations demanded or necessary (see Sections 3.2,3.3 and 3.4) shall be enclosed with the application.

(1)    申请表必须是已提供的表格的形式,任何要求的附加信息,文件和说明以及其他必需要素(见3.2,3.3.和3.4节)都要附于申请表上。

(2)    The application shall describe the organization and technical facilities of the company, as well as provide information about personnel qualifications, scope of production and production processes plus quality control.

(2)    申请表要有公司组织结构,技术设备以及人员的资质,产品范围和产品工艺以及质量控制等信息。

(3)    GL Wind shall be notified of the individuals responsible for observation of the approval conditions and for the quality of the products manufactured, and of their deputies.

(3)    应当告知GL wind满足认证条件的责任范围,产品质量的责任范围,以及其负责人

(4)    The tests which are in the manufacturer’s responsibility shall be documented. This may be acknowledged within the context of a certification of the quality management system (see Section 3.2).

(4)    制造商所应承担的测试要归档。也可以体现在质量管理体系认证内容中(见3.2节)。3.1.4.3 Approval procedure, period of validity

3.1.4.3认证程序,有效期

(1)    After GL Wind has checked the application for compliance with the requirements of Sections 3.3 and3.4 and has inspected the works, the shop approval may be granted for a period of three years. If work under the surveillance of GL Wind is carried out continuously during the period of validity, this is extended by a year at a time without further checks. Renewed confirmation of the approval is then not necessary, but may be given at the request of the company.

(1)    GL wind检查申请表是否符合3.3和3.4节要求后,以及检查完工厂后,公司将被授权3年有效期的车间认证。如果有效期内,工厂处于GL wind连续监督下,则可以延长一年的有效期,无须再做进一步的检查。重复的认证则没有必要,但可以在给公司的要求中提出。

(2)    If no work under the surveillance of GL Wind has been carried out for more than one year, prolongation shall be applied for no later than the expiry of the three-year period of validity. Updated documentation shall be enclosed with the application. In this event, the approval may be renewed and extended for a further three years.

(2)    如果工作脱离GL wind监督长达一年以上,则申请延长有效期必须在3年有效期到期前立即进行。必须在申请表中附加更新的文件。在这种情况下,可能会要重新认证,取得另外3年的有效期。

3.1.4.4 hange in approval conditions

3.1.4.4认证条件的变更

GL Wind shall be informed immediately in writing of any changes in the approval conditions that have a significant influence, such as changes of the production facilities, the production processes, quality control, composition and qualification of the personnel etc. GL Wind shall be notified of any new production procedures in good time before their introduction. GL Wind reserves the right to demand validation tests of such procedures.

要及时以书面的形式告知GL wind认证条件中有重大影响的变动,如改变生产设备,产品工艺,质量控制,人员的组成与资质等。在引入任何一种新产品工艺之前,要及时通知GL wind,GLwind保留对这些工艺进行证实的权利。

3.2Quality Management

3.2质量管理

3.2.1 General

3.2.1概论

(1)Provided the manufacturer operates and applies a quality management (QM) system in accordance with a recognized standard, and this has been evaluated by GL Wind, a portion of the proofs required in this Guideline may be provided within the context of the QM system. A certification of the QM system by an accredited certification body is recognized through the assessment by GL Wind.

(1)如果制造商按照公认标准进行操作,以及运用了公认的质量管理体系,且这些标准和质量管理体系为GL wind公司评估过,则本大纲中所需要的部分证明材料可以包含在质量管理体系的内容中。有权威认证机构认证的质量管理体系,在经过GLwind公司评估后会得到GL wind的认可。

(2)Recognition of the QM system obliges the manufacturer to observe the requirements laid down in this Guideline. The obligation for proof of this rests on the company. GL Wind verifies the effectiveness of the system and the work-specific requirements on the basis of the documentation submitted by the company, e.g. within the context of shop approval, and checks it, at its discretion, by random inspections or by witnessing tests within the QM system.

(2)质量管理体系的认证使得制造商要遵守大纲中所规定的要求。举证这些要求是否得到满足是被认证公司的责任。GLwind核实系统的有效性,核实公司提供的文件所规定的工作具体要求,例如,所提供的车间认证文件要求,核对这些文件,对于公司的判断力,通过随机检查或质量管理体系中的举证来验证。

(3)The manufacturer is responsible for ensuring that all tests and inspections laid down in accordance with this Guideline, as well as with any standards, specifications and other regulations that are also applicable, are carried out.

制造商有责任保证所有测试与检查都是按照本大纲,或按照其他适用的标准、规范、规章来进行的。

(4)GL Wind shall be notified without request prior to the introduction of any alterations to the QM system or to production processes which can be expected to have a significant effect on product quality, as listed for example in Section 3.1.4, para 4. GL Wind reserves the right to check these issues (extraordinary inspection) and to review the approval of the QM system.

无需征询GLwind,质量管理体系中的任何介绍的改动或产品工艺改动(产品工艺改变将可以对产品的质量有明显的影响,如3.1.4节第四段所列出的),都必须告知GL wind。GLwind保留检查(额外检查)这些问题和重新认证质量体系的权力。

(5)Insofar as the certification of the QM system of a certification body was recognized by GL Wind, the manufacturer is under an obligation to inform GL Wind without delay about the loss of the certificate’s validity.

在GLwind 认可的认证机构下认证的质量管理体系,制造商有义务及时告知GLwind认证的有效期。

3.2.2Definitions

3.2.2定义

(1)The definitions of ISO 9000 apply.

(1)使用ISO9000中的定义。

(2)Manufacturer is the organizational unit which manufactures a product or independent component of the product, or which assembles and sells a product consisting of subcontracted components.

(2)制造商是有组织的部门,负责制造产品或产品的独立部件,组装产品、出售合同部件构成的产品。

(3)Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or a service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.

(3)质量是产品或服务总的特点和特色,它是基于满足状态需要或暗含的需求。

(4)Quality management(QM)comprises all planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality.

(4)质量管理包括所有必需的计划和系统的行为,这些计划和系统行为可保证产品的可信度,即产品或服务可以满足给定质量的要求。

(5)The QM system comprises the organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources for implementing quality management.

(5)质量管理由组织结构,责任,程序,过程和资源等用于实施质量管理的要素组成。

(6)The quality audit is a systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with planned actions, and whether these actions are implemented efficiently and are suitable to achieve the objectives.

(6)质量审计是系统的和独立的检查,用于决定质量活动和相关结果是否与计划行为相符合,以及这些行为是否有效实行,是否适用于目标的实现。

(7)The QM system documentation comprises all the documents describing the functions of the QM system. It consists of:

(7)质量管理文件包括所有质量体系功能中描述的文件。它包括:

–    QM manual

–    QM手册

–    QM procedures

–    QM程序

–    QM work instructions

–    QM用法说明

3.2.3Requirements for the quality management system

3.2.3质量管理系统要求

(1)As a minimum, the QM system shall meet the requirements of the QM model according to ISO 9001. ISO 9000 and ISO 9004 contain basic principles and recommendations for the implementation of a QM system.

(1)质量管理体系至少要满足ISO9001所规定的质量管理模式。ISO9000和ISO9004包含的基本原则和建议用于实现质量管理体系。

(2)The QM system shall be worked out in detail in writing (see also Section 3.2.2, para 7).

(2)质量管理体系要有详细的书面说明(见3.2.2节第七段)。

(3)For the manufacturers of products who do not pursue their own development activities, the exclusion of Subsection 7.3 (“Design and Development”) within ISO 9001 is permissible.

(3)如果产品制造商不从事开发活动,则依据ISO9001,本指南的第7.3节(设计和开发)不在考察范围内。

3.2.4Certification of the QM system

3.2.4质量管理体系认证

(1)A certification of the QM system by a certification body accredited according to EN 45012 is, as a rule, regarded as a prerequisite. The general procedure for the certification is described below.

(1)质量管理认证由按照EN45012要求的授权的认证机构进行,是否通过EN 45012是基本原则和先决条件。认证的通常程序在下面的内容里叙述。

(2)Certification of the QM system follows completion of the following assessments: (2)在完成以下评估后,颁发质量管理体系证书:认证要完成如下评估:

– checking of the QM system documentation in relation to the requirements of ISO 9001

–与ISO 9001要求相关的质量管理系统文件的检查

– successful completion of the initial audit by the certification body. This includes a check on whether the QM activities set out in the QM system documentation are being implemented.

–认证机构初审的成功完成。包括检查QM系统文件中设定的QM活动是否完成。

(3)The validity of the certificate is maintained by means of regular audits. These audits are carried out at set intervals in time (once a year and, if necessary, more often).

(3)认证的有效性要通过定期审查的方法来保持。这些审查要在一定的时间间隔内进行(一年一次,如果需要可以更多)。

(4)The certification is generally valid for three years. It commences with the date of the certificate. On completion of the re-certification (usually comprising the execution of a renewal audit), a certificate may be issued which again is valid for three years. The validity of the certificate necessitates that all the conditions under which it was granted are still being met and no serious shortcomings have arisen in the QM system.

(4)认证通常有效期为3年。从认证之日起计算。在重新认证完成(通常包括完成更新审查)后,将颁发有效期3年的证书。认证的有效性,使得所有认可的条件都得到满足,不会导致QM系统有严重的缺陷。

 

3.3 Materials

3.3 材料

3.3.1 General requirements

3.3.1 总体要求

3.3.1.1 General

3.3.1.1 概述

(1)Only suitable materials with guaranteed properties (e.g. strength, toughness – at low temperatures if appropriate, cold deformability, suitability for welding, resistance to rot etc.) may be used for the force and moment-transmitting components of a wind turbine.

(1)只有具有性能保障的合适的材料(比如,强度,低温时的韧性,冷弯性能,可焊接性,防腐性等)才能应用于风机的受力部件和力矩转换部件上。

(2)Materials chosen shall be matched to the demands to be made on the component, particularly the type of load (shock load, oscillating load) as well as the external conditions (see Section 4.2) and to the design. The materials chosen shall be named clearly and comprehensively in the documents (drawings, parts lists) to be submitted for approval.

(2)所选择的材料要与部件的要求,外部环境条件(4.2部分),设计,尤其负荷的类型(振动负荷,振荡负荷)相匹配。所选择的材料应在所递交的认证文件中明确而又全面地命名。

(3)All materials not listed in this Section shall be treated in accordance with the relevant standards as regards quality requirements and test conditions. The special environmental and operational conditions of the wind turbine shall be taken into account.

(3)本部分没有列出的所有材料应依照相关的质量要求和测试条件标准进行检测。应考虑到风机特殊的环境条件和运行条件。

(4)The temperature range for the materials to be used is laid down in Section 4.2.4. The use of materials outside this temperature range necessitates special consultation with GL Wind.

(4)材料使用的温度范围在4.2.4部分列举。如材料的使用温度超出此范围,则应向GL wind 进行商讨。

(5)For components which are mounted on or installed in wind turbines, only materials approved by GL may be used in the case of wind turbines for which an application for project certification has been submitted.

(5)对于安装在风机外部或者内部的部件,都必须使用GL批准的材料,只有这样,才能够提交项目认证的申请。

3.3.1.2 Material tests

3.3.1.2 材料的测试

(1)The type and extent of material testing depends on the importance of and stress on a component, and on the type and extent of the possible or required post manufacture tests. Depending on the type of certification, design analyses with all the required material and component tests according to Section 1.2.3.3 (Aand B-Design Assessment), an implementation of the design requirements in construction and erection according to Section 1.2.5.3 (Type Certificate) or surveillance during production according to Section 1.2.6.2 (Project Certificate) are required. If nothing else has been determined in detail, the following requirements apply.

(1)材料测试的类型和范围取决于部件的重要性、部件所承载的压力以及可能要求的后加工测试的类型和范围。依据认证的类型,所有材料和部件测试的设计分析应参照1.2.3.3部分(A和B设计评估),在建设中设计要求的执行应参照1.2.5.3部分(类型认证),生产过程中的监督应参照1.2.6.2部分(项目认证)。如果没有别的要求详细注明,应按以下要求进行。

(2)Material test documents (statements of compliance) shall correspond to EN 10204:1995 or prEN 10204:2000. They shall contain the results of the tests laid down in the standards or additionally agreed or demanded on the basis of the requirements. They shall furthermore contain data on the marking of the materials, so as to permit reliable tracing to components.

(2)材料测试文件(符合性说明)应与EN10204:1995或者10204:2000相一致。材料测试文件应包括标准中规定的以及依据要求附加的测试的结果。此外,还应包括材料上所标记的数据,用以对部件进行可靠的追踪。

(3)Material test documents (statements of compliance) for components of a wind turbine within the scope of the project certificate form a part of the surveillance during production by GL Wind.

(3)项目认证范围内风机部件的材料测试文件(符合性说明)形成GL风机认证生产监督中的一部分。

(4)Within the scope of the A and B-Design Assessment, inspection certificates in accordance with EN 10204-3.1 B or prEN 10204 3.1 shall generally be submitted for the materials of those components that are subject to high static or dynamic loads and that are important for the integrity of the wind turbine. Test certificates of redundant or damage-tolerant components of the same requirement class can, by way of exception, be certified by test reports according to EN 10204-2.2 or prEN 10204 2.2.

(4)在A和B设计评估范围内,承受高静态或动态负荷以及对风机完整性很重要的部件材料,应提交依据EN10204-3.1B或者prEN 10204.3.1D的检查证书。作为例外,冗余的认证,或者同样要求的耐破坏部件可按照依据EN10204-2.2或者prEN10204.2.2的测试报告进行认证。

(5)For materials of other components or assemblies that are less highly stressed but of particular importance for the functioning of the wind turbine, test reports in accordance with EN 10204-2.2 or prEN 10204 2.2 shall be submitted.

(5)对于其他部件的材料或者不承受较高负荷却对风机功能具有重要性的装配件,应提交依据EN10204-2.2或者prEN10204-2.2的测试报告。

(6)In cases of doubt, the classification of the materials for components or assemblies shall be agreed with GL Wind. In the case of components not obtained with inspection certificates, the scope of the substitute requirements shall be discussed with GL Wind.

(6)在不确定的条件下,部件或者装配件材料的分类应通过GL wind 的批准。对于没有获得检查证书的部件,代替品的要求的范围要与GL wind 进行商讨。

(7)For the components listed below, such as (insofar applicable)

– rotor blades

– blade bearings

– rotor hub

– main bearing

– brake

– generator

– rotor shaft and axle journal

– main frame

– blade-pitch, rotor and yaw locks

– yaw bearing

– tower and (optionally) foundation

that are important for the integrity of the wind turbine and also present a high danger potential for human health and life, an implementation of the design requirements in production and erection according to Section 1.2.5.3 (Type Certificate) or surveillance during production according to Section 1.2.6.2 (Project Certificate) is required. For the bolted connections playing a significant role in the transmission of power, the standard of the quality-management measures shall be shown by a description of the QM measures.

(7)对以下列举的部件,如(在可用的范围内)

风轮叶片

-叶片轴承

-轮毂

-主轴承

-制动器

-发电机

-主轴和轴颈

-主框架

-叶片变桨、叶轮、偏航锁定

-偏航轴承

-塔架和基座

这些部件对风机的整合具有重要性,而且对人健康和生命具有隐患。因此,依据1.2.5.3部分(类型认证)生产和建设中的设计要求的执行或者依据1.2.6.2(项目认证)的生产中的监督是必需的。因为螺栓连接在能量传输方面起着非常重要的作用,因此,质量管理措施的标准要通过一个质量管理措施的描述表述出来。

(8)GL Wind reserves the right to extend the scope of surveillance during production accordingly for special materials, production processes or components.

(8) 对特殊材料,生产过程或者部件,GL wind 保留扩充生产监督范围的权利。

(9)In the case of components not obtained with inspection certificates, the scope of the substitute requirements shall be discussed with GL Wind.

(9)对于没有获得检查证书的部件,代替品的要求的范围应与GL wind 进行商讨。

3.3.1.3 Corrosion protection

3.3.1.3 防腐蚀

3.3.1.3.1General

3.3.1.3.1概述

(1)Wind turbine components are partly exposed to aggressive environmental conditions and not easily accessible. Because of the operational conditions, renewal of the protective coating is not possible in many cases. Special importance therefore attaches to the design, the choice of material and the corrosion protection measures.

(1)风机的各部件部分地暴露在恶劣的外部环境条件下,且不易维修。由于操作条件的限制,多数情况下更换保护涂层是不可能的。因此,设计,材料的选择和防腐蚀措施显得尤为重要。

(2)Wind turbines bearing a certificate without restrictions shall be classed under “marine atmosphere” as regards corrosion attack.

无限制证书的风机,考虑到腐蚀影响,必须归类为海上气候类别。

(3)Further general notes on corrosion protection are also given in the “Guidelines for Corrosion Protection and Coating Systems” of GL.

(3进一步的防腐蚀的基本说明在GL的“防腐蚀和涂覆系统的指导原则”中也有表述。

3.3.1.3.2Design for corrosion protection

3.3.1.3.2防腐蚀的设计

(1)A structural design which takes into account corrosion protection and reduction has a significant effect on the ease of implementing, effectiveness and repairability of the corrosion protection. Basic rules are addressed in ISO 12944-3 and shall be observed.

(1)考虑预防和降低腐蚀的结构设计在执行难度,防腐蚀的有效性和可修复性方面都具有重要的意义。基本原则可查阅ISO12944-3。

(2) Surfaces at risk from corrosion should be designed to be as even as possible. Any necessary stiffenings and fittings etc. shall wherever possible be located in low-corrosion regions. Inaccessible hollow components shall be welded tight.

(2)有腐蚀风险的表面必须进行尽可能的设计好。任何必需的硬化材料和零件等,应尽可能布置于低腐蚀区域。无法触及的有空腔的部件必须紧密焊接。

(3) Areas in which water or aggressive media can accumulate (water pockets) shall be avoided by means of suitable measures such as slopes, passages or run-offs. Condensation shall be reduced by means of design measures such as ventilation.

(3) 必须采取适当的方法避免水和腐蚀性媒介可能积聚的区域(存水区),比如设计斜坡,水道和排水口等。可以用设计手段减少冷凝水的产生,比如采用通风方式。

(4) Residues from welding (such as slag, loosely attached splashes and beads) shall be removed. Splashes or beads melted onto the surface shall be removed if the corrosion stress or the coating system make this necessary.

(4)必须除掉焊渣(比如熔点,其他松散分布的残渣,焊珠)。如果腐蚀应力和涂覆系统要求去除表面的熔渣和焊珠,则必须执行这些步骤。

(5) As a rule, burrs shall always be removed and sharp edges rounded off. This is absolutely necessary if the components are to be coated, or if the stress in the structure or accident prevention require it.

(5)必须去除毛刺,打磨锐边。如果部件要刷油漆,或者结构上应力要求去毛刺,打磨锐边,或者预防措施要求去毛刺,打磨锐边,则绝对必须进行这些步骤。

3.3.1.3.3 Material selection

3.3.1.3.3材料选择

For areas which cannot be protected by coatings and protective coverings, suitable materials with a sensitivity against corrosion classed as “low” or better shall be used. For materials in a marine atmosphere, the standard DIN 81249-4 applies, for example. The corrosion probability of various materials is described in e.g. DIN 50930.

对于那些无法进行油漆保护或者无保护盖的区域,则应该使用抗腐蚀的材料。对于在海上使用的材料。必须符合DIN 81249-4的要求。不同材料的防腐见DIN 50930。

3.3.1.3.4 Coatings

3.3.1.3.4 涂覆

(1) Coatings shall be selected in accordance with ISO 12944-5, which lists the stress and the coating system to be used. The workmanship and monitoring of the coating work shall be in accordance with ISO 12944-7. For metallic protective coverings on steel, Section 5 of the “Guideline for Corrosion Protection and Coating Systems” of GL shall be observed. Additional information shall be taken from the above-mentioned GL Guideline, the GL Rules for Offshore Installations, and the guidelines of the German Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (STG Guideline No. 2215).

(1)必须按照ISO 12944-5的要求选择油漆,该标准列出了所使用的应力和涂覆系统。涂覆工作的监控和涂覆技术必须符合ISO 12944-7的要求。对于金属涂覆,必须满足本指南的第五章“防腐蚀和涂覆系统”的要求。其他信息必须从以上提到的GL指南,海上风机的GL标准,德国海上建筑和工程指南(STG 指南第2215号)中获取。

(2) Surfaces to be protected by coatings shall be designed to be accessible for the necessary activities such as surface preparation, application, inspection and maintenance.

(2)要进行油漆保护的表面必须易于接近,以便于表面处理,施工,检查和维护工作的进行。

3.3.2 Metallic materials

3.3.2 金属材料

(1) Only suitable materials with guaranteed properties (e.g. strength, toughness – at low temperatures if appropriate, cold deformability, suitability for welding etc.), as mentioned in the next section, may be used for the force- and moment-transmitting components of a wind turbine made of metallic materials. The use of materials according to other regulations or standards requires the consent of GL Wind.

(1)只有特性有保证的金属材料(比如,强度,低温时的韧性,冷弯性能,可焊性)才可以用于风机受力部件和力矩转换部件,这些材料将在下面的章节中提到。依据其他标准和准则使用的材料必须获得GL wind的同意。

(2) The material tests shall be performed in accordance with Section 3.3.1.2.

(2)材料试验必须依据第3.3.1.2的要求完成。

(3) For the machinery components such as gearing, bearings, brakes, couplings etc., materials suitable for these components shall be used. Quality requirements and test conditions shall be taken from the relevant standards, taking into account the environmental operational conditions (see Section 4.2). Further special requirements are listed in Chapter 6.

(3)对于机械部件,比如齿轮、轴承、制动器、联轴器等,必须使用合适的材料。考虑到环境运行条件,质量要求和实验条件,必须从相关标准中摘录(见第4.2节)。其他特殊要求在第六章列出。

(4) In special cases, limited continued operation of the wind turbine may be accepted by GL Wind in the event of an incipient crack that is growing steadily. The material data to be applied for determining the remaining lifetime of a component shall be agreed with GL Wind before use.

(4)在某些特殊情况下,如,初裂稳定增加的情况,风机持续运行在极限工况下,也是可以为GL Wind接受的。用于决定部件剩余寿命的材料参数在其使用前必须获得GL wind的同意。

3.3.2.1 Structural steels

3.3.2.1结构钢

(1) For the structures and components in accordance with Chapters 6 and 7, structural steels according to EN 10025 as well as weldable fine grained steels according to EN 10113 may be used. With the consent of GL Wind, other equivalent structural steels may also be used. The characteristic values shall be taken from the corresponding standards. The demands made on special steels are laid down by GL Wind individually for each case. For hollow sections, the standards EN 10219-1 (cold-formed, welded) and EN 10210-1 (hot-finished) apply.

(1)可以使用依据第六,第七章要求的结构和部件、依据EN 10025要求的结构钢,以及依据EN 10113要求的具有良好焊接性能的钢材。经过GL Wind的同意,其他等效的结构钢也可以使用。特征值必须从相应的标准中提取。GL Wind指定的每种情况的特殊钢材的要求在下面的内容中列出。对于有空腔的部件,必须采用标准EN 10219-1(冷弯性,可焊性)和标准EN 10210-1(热成型)。

(2) The structural steels used for less important, non-load-bearing parts shall have sufficient strength and shall exhibit the properties required for the particular application (e.g. cold-workability, weldability). Welded joints between these steels and those of the load-bearing structures and components shall not adversely affect the components.

(2)对于特殊应用情况,非重要部件以及非承载部件用的结构钢必须用足够的强度,具有要求的性能(比如,冷弯性,可焊性)。在这些钢材与承载结构、部件之间施焊不得影响到承载结构和部件。

3.3.2.2 Cast steel

3.3.2.2铸钢

(1) For the structures and components in accordance with Chapters 6 and 7, cast steels of the grades GS-38, GS-45 and GS-52 according to DIN 1681 as well as GS-16Mn5, GS-20Mn5N and GS-20Mn5V according to DIN 17182 may be used. Cast steel grades accord-ing to other specifications or standards may also be used with the consent of GL Wind, provided they are equivalent to the grades listed above as regards their mechanical properties and, if appropriate, weldability and also provided that proof has been furnished of their suitability for the intended application. For this purpose, a once-only suitability test may be required.

(1)可以使用依据第六、第七章要求的结构和部件、依据DIN 1681等级为GS-38,GS-45,GS-52的铸钢、以及依据DIN 17182的等级为GS-16Mn5,GS-20Mn5N,GS-20Mn5V的铸钢。假如有符合其他规范和标准的铸钢,且其机械性能、可焊性、特定场合的运用与上述钢材等级要求等效,则经过GL Wind同意,也是可以使用的。为此,可能会要求做相关的试验。

(2) Unless otherwise agreed, the quality require-ments and test conditions in accordance with the above-mentioned standards apply to steel castings. Furthermore, the provisions set out in EN 1559-1:1997 and EN 1559-2:2000 shall be observed. The notched bar impact work shall be verified at a temperature corresponding to the minimum design temperature (cf. Section 3.3.1.1, para 4).

(2)除非有其他要求,否则,铸钢的质量要求和试验条件必须满足上述的标准。此外,也必须满足EN 1559-1:1997和EN 1559-2:2000等标准。必须进行最低设计温度下的切口冲击试验(cf.第3.3.1.1章)。

(3) The conditions listed below shall also be observed:

(3)以下条件必须满足:

– In the case of steel castings to be used in welded designs, the carbon content of the above-mentioned grades shall not exceed 0.23 %, and the sum of chromium and molybdenum content 0.30 %. The composition of each melt shall be certified by the manufacturer.

–用于焊接的铸钢,以上提到的等级的铸钢碳含量不得超过0.23 %,铬钼含量的总和不得超过0.30%。制造商必须验证每个熔融金属的成分。

–The steel castings shall be supplied either normalized or hardened and tempered, de-pending on the type of cast.

–依据铸钢类型,交货的铸钢必须规格化,硬化以及经过调质处理。

–For cast components that are predominantly dynamically stressed, quality grade 3 in accordance with DIN 1690 T2:1985 in conjunction with EN 12681:2003 (Radiographic test), EN 12680-2:2003 (Ultrasonic test), EN 1371-1:1997 (Dye penetration test) and EN 1369:1997 (Magnetic crack detection test) is the least favourable permitted. The quality grades shall correspond to the assumptions of the computational analyses as per Section 5.3.3.4.3.

–仅允许使用依据DIN 1690 T2:1985、EN 12681:2003(X光试验)、EN 12680-2:2003 (超探), EN 1371-1:1997 (液体渗漏试验) and EN 1369:1997 (磁粉探伤)的高动态应力,质量等级3的铸件。质量等级必须符合第5.3.3.4.3章的计算分析的假定值。

– Steel castings may not exhibit any faults which might adversely affect their use and appropriate processing.

–铸钢不得有瑕疵,以免影响其使用和加工。

– The removal of faults through fabrication welding or repair welding is permissible only with specifications approved by GL Wind. The qualification of the welding workshop and the welder performing the work shall be verified in accordance with Section 3.4.2.

–去除焊接装配的失误或者修理焊件,只有依据得到GL Wind许可同意的规范才可以进行。焊接车间的资质以及焊工完成工作的过程必须按照第3.4.2章的要求来验证。

3.3.2.3 Stainless steels

3.3.2.3不锈钢

(1) Stainless steels shall be selected with respect to their resistance to corrosion, taking into account the processing conditions (e.g. welding). If nothing else has been agreed for individual cases, suitable steels, e.g. according to EN 10088 (Stainless steels) and EN 10213-4 (Steel castings for pressure vessels) may be selected in the case that no delivery is to take place on the basis of a specification approved by GL Wind.

(1)考虑到加工条件(比如焊接)以及抗腐蚀性,应该选择不锈钢。对于个别情况,如果没有合适的材料,可以选择依据EN 10088 (不锈钢)和EN 10213-4 (压力容器铸钢)不锈钢,比如按照GL Wind批准的技术规范,无法交货的情况。

(2) Only those grades suitable for welding with guaranteed resistance to intercrystalline corrosion may be used for welded structures. If it is intended to weld castings without post-weld heat treatment, only grades of cast steel that are corrosion-resistant in this condition as well shall be used, e.g. cast steels stabilized with Nb or containing not more than 0.03 % C.

(2)只允许那些耐晶体间腐蚀的材料作为焊接结构。如果焊接铸件没有后焊接热处理,则只允许使用那些抗腐蚀的铸钢,比如,含Nb的稳定铸钢或含碳量不超过0.03%的铸钢。

(3) Other grades of cast steel conforming to other standards or material specifications may be used, provided that they are comparable to the grades of cast steel described in EN 10213-4 with regard to their delivery condition, heat treatment, chemical composi-tion, mechanical properties and weldability, and provided that proof has been furnished of their suitability for the intended application. For this purpose, a first-time suitability test may be required.

(3)其他等级的铸钢也可以使用,前提是符合其他标准或材料的技术规范的要求,比如交货技术条件,热处理,化学成分,机械性能以及焊接性能,且有证据表明它们适于特定运用情况。为此,可能要求进行首件适合性的试验。

(4) The limits for the lowest design temperatures according to Section 3.3.1.1 shall be observed.

(4)必须符合第3.3.1.1章的最低温度要求。

3.3.2.4 Forging steels

3.3.2.4锻钢

Additional notes on selecting suitable materials can also be taken from the Guideline of GL (II, Part 1, Chapter 2, Section 3 [3.3]).

也可以从GL指南(II,第一部分,第二章,第三节[3.3])获取材料选择的其他信息。

3.3.2.4.1 Standards

3.3.2.4.1标准

Forgings and bar stock for structures and components as per Chapters 6 and 7 shall be selected to EN 10083 in accordance with the requirements; in the case of larger cross-sections (i.e. greater than 100 mm / 250 mm; see EN 10083) according to Stahl-Eisen-Werk-stoffblatt (Steel/Iron Materials Data Sheet) SEW 550. Further notes on selecting suitable materials can also be taken from the Guideline of GL (II, Part 1, Chapter 2, Section 3 [3.3]). For tempering and case-hardening steels, e.g. for the manufacture of gearwheels and pinions, the standards EN 10083 and 10084 apply; for stainless steels EN 10088 applies. Forgings and bar stock in accordance with other standards or manufac-turers’ material specifications may be used if properties equivalent to those in the standards listed above can be guaranteed, and if proof has been furnished of their suitability for the intended application. For this purpose, a first-time suitability test may be required.

第六第七章的结构和部件用锻材和棒材的选择,必须满足EN 10083标准来进行,大截面的情况(比如:大于100 mm / 250 mm,见EN 10083),应依据Stahl-Eisen-Werk-stoffblatt (钢铁材料的数据表) SEW 550来进行。更多其他选择材料的要求可以从GL指南中(II,第一部分,第二章,第三节[3.3])获得。对于回火和硬化钢,比如制造大齿轮和小齿轮,运用标准为EN 10083和EN 10084;对于不锈钢,运用标准为EN 10088。使用其他标准或者材料技术规范要求的锻材和棒材,只要其性能和上述标准中规定的一样,且有证据表面能够使用于特定的场合,则也是可以使用的。为此,可能需要进行首件的合适性试验。

3.3.2.4.2 Production processes

3.3.2.4.2产品工艺

(1) Forging steel shall be produced by an oxygen steel-making process in an electric or Siemens-Martin furnace or by other processes approved by GL Wind, and shall be cast killed. On request, GL Wind shall be informed of the melting process.

(1)锻钢应该用GL Wind认可的电炉或者西门子-马丁炉法,采用氧气吹转炼钢工艺来制造,必须是镇静钢。GL Wind应该被告知冶炼工艺。

(2) Enough shall be cut off at the top and bottom of the ingots to ensure that the forgings are free from any harmful segregations. These are all inhomogeneities which might impair the required quality characteristics.

(2)必须从铁腚的底部和顶部切出多余部分,以确保铸件没有任何的有害隔断。这些各向异性特征将会削弱要求的质量特性。

(3) As far as possible, the pieces shall be forged to the dimensions of the finished part, taking into account an appropriate machining allowance. Excessive machining to produce the final shape, which might impair the quality characteristics by for example exposing the core area, is not allowed. In the case of stepped shafts, forged starting material shall be used for turned grooves larger than 1/10 of the outer diameter. The degree of deformation shall be so selected that the core zone of the forging is adequately forged through. The total degree of deformation shall not be less than 3.5 : 1.

(3)对于完工部件的尺寸,那些即将锻压的铁块,应考虑预留适当的机加工余量。为追求最终形状而过分机加工将会削弱质量特性,是不允许的,比如切削核心区域。对于阶梯轴,必须使用锻压起始材料,使开槽大于1/10外径。变形度的选择必须如下:保证核心锻压核心区域有足够尺寸以便锻压彻底。整个变形度不得低于3.5:1。

(4) Collars and hollow pieces shall be made from ingot or cogged ingot sections competently punched, bored or pierced before the parts are reamed or rolled over a suitable mandrel.

(4)部件在滚轴上扩张或者滚压之前,用纯铁或初轧钢锭制作的颈口件和空槽件必须冲压,打孔或者钻孔。

3.3.2.4.3 Delivery condition, heat treatment

3.3.2.4.3交货条件,热处理

(1) All forgings shall be heat treated in a manner appropriate to the material. The treatment shall be carried out in suitable furnaces, maintained effectively and regularly. These shall be equipped with means for controlling and indicating the temperature. The dimensions of the furnace shall make it possible to bring the entire forging uniformly to the required annealing temperature. Where, in the case of very large forgings, the furnace dimensions do not permit total normalizing in one step, alternative heat treatment processes shall be agreed with GL Wind.

(1)所有锻件必须用适当的方法进行热处理。热处理必须采用适当的炉子,有效的以及经常性保养。炉子必须有温度控制和温度显示的设备。炉子的尺寸应该可以保证整个工件可以放入,达到均匀的退火温度。在工件尺寸十分巨大的情形下,炉子的尺寸不能一次性将整个工件放入时,则替代的热处理方法必须经过GL Wind同意。

(2) All hot-forging work shall be completed before the final heat treatment. If a forging has for any reason to be reheated for further hot working, the final heat treatment shall be repeated.

(2)所有热锻件必须在最终热处理之前完成。如果锻件由于其他原因必须再回炉再加热,则必须重新进行最终的热处理。

(3) If a forging is hot- or cold-straightened after final heat treatment, subsequent stress-relieving to remove the residual stress may be demanded.

(3)如果锻件在最终热处理完成后,热直或冷直后,则要求消除残余应力。

(4) Forgings which after forging undergo large changes in cross-section by machining may be hardened and tempered only after adequate pretreatment. The weight at hardening and tempering shall not be more than 1.25 times the finished weight.

(4)经过机加工,锻件的截面尺寸发生了较大的改变,则可能要求对锻件进行足够的预处理,使之硬化和调质。硬化和调质时的重量不得超过完工时重量的1.25倍。

3.3.2.4.4 General forging quality

3.3.2.4.4 一般锻件质量

(1) All forgings shall be free from any faults which may impair use and processing to more than an insignificant extent, e.g. flakes, cracks, shrinkage holes, segregations, peripheral blowholes and major non-metallic inclusions. Forgings to be delivered unmachined shall have a smooth surface appropriate to the production process.

(1)所有锻件不得有缺陷,以免影响使用和加工,即使是无关紧要的瑕疵也不可以,比如,薄片,裂缝,收缩孔,隔断,外围呼吸孔和包含很多非金属物质。没有经过机加工的锻件必须有光滑的表面,使之使用于生产加工。

(2) Small surface faults may be removed by pointing and/or grinding. Complete removal of the fault shall be demonstrated by a magnetic crack detection test or a dye penetration test.

(2)小的表面缺陷可以用弄平或者打磨方法处理掉。是否弯曲去除缺陷,必须用磁粉探伤或者渗透探伤的方法来证明。

(3) Proof of the chemical composition:

(3)化学成分的证据:

The manufacturer shall determine the chemical composition of every melt and submit a corresponding certificate in accordance with Section 3.3.1.2. This certificate shall state the chemical composition of the melt which characterizes the steel grade. If there is any doubt as to the composition, or if the connection be-tween certificate and forging cannot be proved, a product analysis shall be carried out.

制造商必须测定每一金属的化学成分,并提交依据第3.3.1.2节要求的证书。这个证书要说明金属的化学成分,以及材料分属于那类钢的级别。如果对成分有任何疑虑,或者在证书和锻件之间的联系无法得以证明,则必须进行产品分析。

3.3.2.4.5 Mechanico-technological testing

3.3.2.4.5机械试验

(1) Tensile test:

(1)拉力试验

The mechanical properties shall be checked by means of the tensile test, in which the tensile strength, the yield point or 0.2 % elastic strain limit, the elongation at fracture and the reduction in area at fracture are to be determined.

机械特性必须用拉伸试验来证明,拉伸强度,屈服点或0.2%的弹性张力限值,拉断时的延长率和断裂时的缩减率必须进行试验。

(2) Notched-bar impact-bending test:

(2)切口冲击试验-弯曲试验

A notched-bar impact-bending test shall be carried out if this is stated in the standards. Unless otherwise specified, the notched-bar impact work shall be verified on every forging or test piece by notched-bar impact-bending tests.

如果标准中有要求,则必须进行切口冲击试验-弯曲试验。除非有其他规定,必须在每个工件和试验件上进行切口冲击试验和弯曲试验,以证明其符合试验要求。

(3) Sampling:

(3)取样

As a rule, the taking of samples from forgings shall be arranged by forging-on sample sections outside the forging dimensions. The sample section may generally be separated from the forging only after the final heat treatment. Subsequent stress relieving need not be taken into account in this connection. Premature separation is permitted only if unavoidable for production reasons. In this event, the forging and the sample section shall be heat treated together.

通常来说,从锻件上取样,应在锻件外围的取样区域锻一个样品下来。经过最后的热处理,取样区域通常可以从锻件上分离。此时,不必考虑到随后的应力消除。如果生产原因不利于取样,也允许早点分离。此时,锻件和取样区域必须一同热处理。

(4) In deviation from this provision, in the case of series-production drop forgings, the samples may be taken from items surplus to requirements or separately forged sample sections; these shall belong to the same melt and be heat treated together with the associated items under test. The test batch sizes laid down in the standards apply as regards sample selection.

(4)和本规定不同,在系列锻件生产中,样品可以从其他盈余锻件中获得,或者从其他盈余锻件中分离;但前提是这些取样的锻件必须和使用的锻件是同一炉号,经过同样的热处理。对于取样的选择,试验批次尺寸在运用的标准中列出。

(5) All sample cut-offs shall be forged with the same degree of deformation to that cross-section which is also representative of the forging’s typical cross-section. The sample cut-offs shall be large enough to provide specimens for any test which might be neces-sary as well as those required for any repeated tests.

(5)所有切下来的样品,必须用同样的横截面变形度来锻造,这些横截面是锻件典型截面的代表。所截取的样品必须有足够的尺寸,以便可以提供任何试验的取样,以及满足那些重复试验的取样要求。

(6) All sample cut-offs and test specimens shall be so marked that they can be clearly assigned to the forgings or test units they represent. As a rule, the samples shall be taken from a point of the sample cut-off or test specimen lying one-third of the diameter or thickness below the surface.

(6)所有切取的样品和试验样本,必须标记,以便明确的用于对应的锻造或对应的试验仪器。通常来说,样品应该从所切下来的样品中取一些,或者,试验样品处于表面三分之一直径或者厚度处。

3.3.2.4.6 Non-destructive testing

3.3.2.4.6 非破坏性试验

(1) If surface crack testing is required, it shall preferably be effected by means of the magnetic crack detection method, except in the case of austenitic steels. The tests shall generally be carried out on forgings which have undergone final heat treatment, if possible after machining. If current flow is being used, care shall be taken that no penetration points are caused by the contact electrodes. The effective tangential field intensity shall be at least 2 kA/m (25 Oe) at the workpiece surface, but shall not exceed 5 kA/m (62.5 Oe).

(1)如果要求进行表面裂纹测试,比较有效的方法是采用磁探伤技术,奥氏体钢除外。试验通常在锻件上进行,这些锻件都经过了最后的热处理,如果可能的话,这些锻件经过了机加工。如果使用电流,则必须注意不会有接触电极造成的渗漏点。工件表面的有效表面区域强度至少为2kA/m(25 Oe),但不得超过5 kA/m (62.5 Oe)。

(2) Surface crack tests using the dye penetration method are possible in exceptional cases (and for austenitic steels). The tests shall be carried out with a testing-medium combination comprising penetrant, intermediate cleanser and developer in accordance with the testing-medium manufacturer’s instructions.

(2)除非特殊情况(如:奥氏体),使用染料渗透法进行表面裂纹试验也是可以的。试验必须用试验媒介来做,试验媒介成分为渗透剂,媒介清洗剂和显影剂,媒介的使用应该参照制造商的说明书。

(3) Ultrasonic testing shall preferably be carried out while the piece still has a simple geometric shape, the pieces to be tested having been at least normalized. Provided shape and size of the piece permit, ultra-sound shall be passed through it radially and axially. Technical data relating to the test, such as method, type of appliance, testing head, appliance adjustment, recording threshold and error margins shall be laid down and made known by the manufacturer. The qualification of the tester shall be demonstrated. The company shall prepare a report on the ultrasonic test-ing, containing the details of the process listed above and an assessment of the readings.

(3)当工件只有简单的几何外形,则超探是一个很好的方法,待试验的工件至少要规格化。假如工件的形状和尺寸允许,超探可以轴向和径向探过。试验相关的技术数据,比如方法,运用类型,试验探头,仪器调整,记录开始时刻,误差等必须列出,并为制造商所知晓。实验人员的资格必须证明。公司应该准备一份超探试验报告,该报告包括以上列出的具体过程,以及对读数的评估。

3.3.2.5 Cast iron

3.3.2.5 铸铁

(1) For structures and components in accordance with Chapters 6 and 7, cast iron with either spheroidal graphite (EN-GJS) according to EN 1563:2003 or lamellar graphite (EN-GJL) according to EN 1561:1997 may be used, depending on the mechanical properties required. Furthermore, the provisions set out in EN 1559-1:1997 and EN 1559-3:1997 shall be ob-served.

(1)第六章、第七章中的结构和部件,可以使用依据EN 1563:2003的球墨铸铁或者依据EN 1561:1997的层状石墨铸铁(EN-GJL)。根据要求的机械性能,在EN 1559-1:1997 和EN 1559-3:1997中规定的其他要求也必须满足。

(2) Without additional verification, cast iron with a tendency for brittle fracture (EN-GJS with a high percentage of pearlite; EN-GJL) shall not be selected for components that play a significant role in the transmission of power and are under high dynamic stress, e.g. rotor hubs, gearbox housings with integrated rotor bearings, castings of rotor bearing and machine foundations.

(2)对于重要力矩转换部件以及承受高动态应力的部件,比如轮毂,集成轴承的齿轮箱架,轴承的铸件和机械基础等,如果没有其他证书,则不得选择易碎的铸铁(珠光体含量高的EN-GJS; EN-GJL)作为原料。

(3) For cast iron with spheroidal graphite, the manufacturing processes shall ensure that 90 % of the graphite in the spheroidal form V and VI (according to ISO 945:1994) has been segregated. For the determination of the microstructure, ISO 945 may be applied. For the ferritic types, the pearlite proportion within the grain structure of the metallic base material shall not exceed 10 %.

(3)对于球墨铸铁,加工工艺必须保证90%的球形V石墨和90%的球形VI互相分离。为测定其显微结构,可以采用标准ISO 945。对于以铁酸盐为主要成分的类型,金属材料的颗粒结构中,珠光体含量不得超过10%。

(4) The use of other types of cast iron according to other standards or material specifications shall be agreed with GL Wind.

(4)使用其他标准或规范规定的其他类型的铸铁,必须获得GL Wind的同意。

(5) For the assessment of the casting quality of components with consideration of internal flaws, non-destructive testing methods such as ultrasound (ac-cording to EN 12680-3:2003) and/or radiographic tests (according to EN 12681:2003) shall be applied. For radiographic tests, the radiation source shall be selected in relation to the maximum wall thicknesses in accordance with EN 444. If no satisfactory rear-panel or error echo is obtained for the ultrasonic test, a combination with the radiographic test shall be performed.

(5)为评估铸铁材料制作的部件的质量,看其是否存在内部裂纹,则必须采用非破坏性试验,比如超探(依据 EN 12680-3:2003)和X光探伤(依据EN 12681:2003)。对于X光探伤试验,所选择的X光源,必须依据EN 444规定的对应最大壁厚的关系来选择。如果超探试验中,没有满意的后面板或者得到错误的反射,则必须结合X光探伤试验来完成探伤。

(6) For components that are predominantly dynamically stressed and made of cast iron with spheroidal graphite, a quality level requirement shall be set according to EN 12680-3:2003 (Ultrasonic test) and VDG instruction sheet P-541 (Verein Deutscher Gießereifachleute) in conjunction with EN 12681:2003 (Radiographic test), EN 1369:1997 (Magnetic crack detection test) and EN 1371-1:1997 (Dye penetration test). These shall correspond to the assumptions of the computational analyses as per Section 5.3.3.4.3.

(6)对于球墨铸铁制造的,且承受巨大动态应力的部件,必须满足依据EN 12680-3:2003(超探)和VDG说明书P-541(Verein Deutscher Gießereifachleute)以及EN 12681:2003 (X光探伤),EN 1369:1997 (磁粉探伤)和EN 1371-1:1997 (染料渗透探伤)的质量要求。其必须和第5.3.3.4.3部分的技术分析假设一致。

(7) The flaw types blowholes (flaw class A), non-metallic inclusions (B) and enclosed shrinkage holes (C) shall be classified according to their quality after the radiographic test (see also Table 3.3.1). Here the worst acceptable is quality level 3 according to VDG instruction sheet P-541. Dross (Z) or shrinkage holes (C) cut by mechanical processing are fundamentally inadmissible in highly stressed areas and shall be removed by mechanical means, taking into account the permissible reduction in wall thickness. All other types of flaws shall, if applicable, be assessed separately and possible countermeasures shall be coordinated with GL Wind.

(7)呼吸孔上的裂纹(裂纹等级A),内含的非金属物质(B)和内部收缩孔(C),在经过X光探伤试验(也可参见表3.3.1)后,必须依据它们的质量等级分类。依据VDG说明表P-541,最差的可接受质量等级为3级。由机械加工形成的残渣(Z)或收缩孔(C),绝对不得在高应力区域存在,根据壁厚上允许的缩减量,必须用机械办法去除。所有其他类型的裂纹,如有可能,可以单独评估,经过和GL Wind协商后,可以采取相应的对策。

Table 3.3.1 Allocation of the flaw class to wall thicknesses and quality levels for radiographic testing of EN-GJS on the basis of VDG instruction sheet P-541

表 3.3.1 壁厚裂纹等级的分布,依据VDG说明书P-541的EN-GJS的X光探伤试验的质量类别

 

 

Quality level

质量等级    Flaw classes

裂纹分类

Wall thickness up to 100 mm

壁厚小于100mm    Wall thickness > 100 – 250 mm

壁厚在100-250之间    Wall thickness > 250 – 400 mm

壁厚在250-400之间

1    A1, B1, C1    A1, B1, C2    A1, B1, C3

2    A2, B2, C2    A2, B2, C3    A2, B2, C4

3    A3, B3, C4    A3, B3, C5    A3, B3, C6

(8) For components that are predominantly dynamically stressed and made of cast iron with spheroidal graphite, a quality level requirement shall be set according to for indications to be reported. Here the worst acceptable is quality level 3.

(8)对于那些由球墨铸铁制成的承受主要的动态应力的部件,必须满足EN 12680-3:2003规定的质量等级要求。这里,最差的质量等级为3级。

(9)The removal of sample cut-offs or test specimens for determining the mechanico-technological properties and the grain and graphite structures, and for determining the casting quality, shall be so executed that the typical characteristics of the component are registered properly. In many cases, it is necessary to prescribe varying sampling points on the component.

(9)分离的样品或试验样品的机械特性的测定,晶体和石墨结构的测定,以及铸件质量的测定,必须使得部件的典型特征被正确记录。

(10) All sample cut-offs and test specimens shall be so marked that they can be clearly assigned. The corresponding specifications shall be submitted to GL Wind.

(10)所有分离的样品和试验样品必须标记以便清楚的分配。相应的规范必须提交给GL Wind。

(11) The test results shall be documented in accordance with Section 3.3.1.2.

(11)试验结果必须按照第3.3.1.2部分的要求归档。

(12) The removal of faults through fabrication welding or repair welding is permissible only with approved procedure testing. With regard to the qualification of the welding workshop and the welder performing the work, Section 3.4.2 shall be observed. Prior to the start of welding work of this type, the welding process, the heat treatment and the scope of the tests shall be agreed with GL Wind. Mixed welding of dynamically stressed components is inadmissible.

(12)只在有批准的工艺试验的情况下,才允许进行焊接缺陷的去除工作和焊接修理工作。必须满足第3.4.2章关于焊接车间和焊工作业的条件。在焊接之前,焊接工序,热处理和试验范围等必须经过GL Wind同意。动态应力部件的混合焊接是不允许的。

(13) The limits for the lowest design temperatures according to Section 3.3.1.1 shall be observed.

(13)必须满足第3.3.1.1章的最低设计温度要求

3.3.2.6 Aluminium alloys

3.3.2.6 铝合金

(1) Only aluminium alloys that are suited to the intended purpose and have been approved by GL Wind shall be used. If applicable, proof of suitability for welding shall be furnished for the alloys.

(1)只有经过GL Wind批准的且适合于特定用途的铝合金才可以使用。如有可能,应提供合金适合焊接的证据。

(2) As regards fatigue strength and sensitivity to notches, aluminium is comparable to high tensile steels, and therefore demands careful design and manufacturing.

(2)考虑到切口的疲劳强度和敏感度,对比高拉力钢,铝材料要求更细的设计和制造。

(3) Proper processing and suitable corrosion protection shall be applied in order to prevent contact corrosion and particularly corrosion in a marine atmosphere.

(3)应采用正确的工艺和适当的防腐保护,以防止接触腐蚀,尤其是在海洋环境条件下。

3.3.2.6.1 Wrought alloys

3.3.2.6.1 精炼合金

(1) For the chemical composition of the aluminium alloys, the Euronorm EN 573 shall be observed, for the mechanical properties EN 755-2, and for the definition of the material conditions of semifinished products EN 515.

(1)对于合金的化学成分,必须满足欧洲标准EN 573的要求,对于机械特性,必须满足标准EN 755-2的要求,对于半轧制产品的材料条件的定义,必须满足EN 515的要求。

(2) Compliance with the tolerances and the requirements for the general condition lies within the responsibility of the manufacturer.

(2)一般条件的容差和要求的符合性在制造商的责任中列出。

3.3.2.6.2 Cast alloys

3.3.2.6.2 铸造合金

(1) The chemical composition and mechanical prop-erties of castings made of aluminium and aluminium alloys shall comply with the values given in Euronorm EN 1706.

(1)铝铸件和铝合金的化学成分和机械特性必须和EN 1706标准吻合。

(2) All castings shall be free from any internal or external faults which may impair use and competent processing to more than an insignificant extent.

(2)所有铸件,不得有内部和外部的缺陷,即使很微小,这些缺陷也可能削弱使用性和加工性。

(3) If defects are to be removed by welding, the manufacturer shall compile a welding specification and obtain the consent of GL Wind. Furthermore, in the case of doubts concerning the freedom from defects of the castings, non-destructive tests shall be initiated by the casting manufacturer and performed at the relevant points. Repaired defects as well as areas that are critical from the viewpoint of casting technology shall be included in the tests.

(3)如果要用焊接的方法去除缺陷,制造商必须编写一份焊接规范,且应得到GL Wind的同意。此外,如在铸件缺陷免除方面存有疑问,则应该由制造商按照相关项点进行非破坏性结构试验。铸件可目测的关键区域的缺陷修理必须包含在试验中。

(4) The results of the tests shall be documented in accordance with Section 3.3.1.2.

(4)试验结果必须按照第3.3.1.2章的要求归档。

3.3.3Fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP)

3.3.3纤维增强材料

3.3.3.1 Definitions

3.3.3.1 定义

(1)Fibre-reinforced plastics are heterogeneous materials, consisting of a cured reaction resin compound as matrix with fibrous reinforcing materials embedded in it.

(1)纤维增强材料是非均相的材料,由作为混凝土的反应树脂混合物和嵌入其中的纤维增强材料组成。

(2)The reaction resin compound is a multiple-component mix, consisting of reaction resin and hardener, plus possibly additives.

(2)反应树脂混合物由多种成分组成:反应树脂,固化剂,添加剂。

(3)Reinforcing materials are fibres of various materials processed to form various reinforcement products, depending on the intended use. A distinction is made between:

– homogeneous: The reinforcement product contains fibres of one single material.

– inhomogeneous: The reinforcement product contains fibres of diverse materials, though individual layers or directions in one layer may be homogeneous.

(3)增强材料是不同材料的纤维,依据特定的用途,加工成不同的增强产品,分别为:

-均一的:增强产品仅含一种材料的纤维。-非均一的:增强产品包含不同材料的纤维,尽管单层或者单层的同一方向是均一的。

(4)Laminate is produced by layerwise arrangement of reinforcement products with reaction resin compounds.

(4)层是有增强产品用树脂复合材料分层布置而成。

(5)Sandwich laminate comprises layers of laminate bonded together by an intermediate core of lightweight material.

(5)三明治层由轻质内核材料粘接层构成。

(6)Prepreg is a reinforcing material pre-impregnated with reaction resin compound, and can be worked without having any more resin compound added. A distinction can be made between wet and dry prepregs, where the wet prepregs are often known as “indoor prepreg”, since they are produced at the workshop of the component manufacturer.

(6)预浸料是增强材料提前浸渍在反应树脂混合物中,不必再增加反应树脂混合物就可反应。湿预浸料和干预浸料有一区别,湿预浸料还经常被称为室内预浸料,因为都是部件制造商在车间生产的。

3.3.3.2 General

3.3.3.2 概述

(1)The properties of fibre-reinforced plastics are strongly influenced by their processing. For this reason, the requirements for manufacturers set out in Section 3.4.3 shall be observed.

(1)纤维增强材料的性能受加工的影响非常大。基于这个原因,应注意3.4.3部分对制造商的要求。

(2)Notwithstanding the availability of approvals or confirmations of the quality of individual components (resin compound, reinforcing material, adhesive etc.),it shall be checked that the properties of the corresponding composite material comply with the design values.

(2)无论是否有认可的实用性或者是否有各个单独部件的质量确认(树脂混合物,增强材料,粘合剂等),还必须核查相应复合材料的性能是否与设计值相符。

3.3.3.3 Reaction resin compounds

3.3.3.3反应树脂混合物

(1)    Depending on the purpose and thus on the requirements, a distinction shall be made between laminating resins and gelcoat resins. For the combination of gelcoat and laminating resins, compatibility shall be demonstrated unless the basic resins are the same.

(1)依据目的,按照相应要求,应区别层压树脂和凝胶涂层树脂。对于层压树脂和凝胶涂层树脂的结合,除非两者的混凝土树脂是一样的,否则应说明两者的兼容性。

(2)Gelcoat resins are intended to protect the laminate against external damage and influences. In cured condition, they are therefore required to have good resistance to moisture, chemical attack, UV radiation, marine and industrial environments, and to exhibit a high degree of resistance to abrasion and a low water absorption capacity as well as a high elasticity. The only additives permitted are, to a limited extent, thixotropic agents and pigments.

(2)凝胶涂层树脂用以保护层压树脂免受外界的破坏和影响。在固化状态,要求他们具有优良的防潮性,抗化学腐蚀性,抗紫外辐射性,适应海运和工业的环境,还要有好的抗磨损性,低的吸水性和高的弹性。在有限的范围内,唯一允许的添加剂是触变剂和颜料。

(3)Laminating resins shall have good impregnation properties in the working state, whereas in the cured state they shall be moisture-resistant and highly resistant to ageing. These properties shall also be provided with the permitted additives and fillers.

(3)层压树脂在加工时应有好的注入特性,而在固化阶段,应具有防潮性和高的耐老化性。这些性能也可通过允许的添加剂和填充剂来获得。

(4)In the case of reaction resin compounds, all additives to resins (catalysts, accelerators, inhibitors, fillers and pigments) shall be harmonized with the reaction resin and be compatible amongst themselves and with it, whereby total curing of the resin shall be guaranteed. The additives shall be dispersed in the resin compound with care and in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Catalysts which initiate the hardening process and accelerators or inhibitors which control the working time (pot life) and curing time shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s processing guidelines.

(4)对于反应树脂混合物,所有的树脂添加剂(催化剂,加速剂,抑制剂,填料,色素)应与反应树脂相互兼容,且树脂添加剂相互之间也应互相兼容,保证整个树脂的固化。依据制造商的指导说明,添加剂应小心的分散在树脂混合物中。引发固化过程的催化剂和控制反应时间(灌注时间)和固化时间的加速剂和抑制剂应依据制造商的工艺进行。

(5)In the case of epoxy resins, the resin and hard-ener constituents shall, as far as possible, be mixed exactly to the manufacturer’s regulations. As a rule, only the resin/hardener combinations prescribed by the manufacturer are permissible.

(5)对于环氧树脂,树脂和固化剂成分应尽可能的混合,以达到制造商的要求。根据规定,只有制造商指定的树脂/固化剂复合物才是允许的。

(6)All systems which are cured at room temperature (cold-curing systems) shall be matched in such a way that satisfactory curing is guaranteed at temperatures from 16 °C to 25 °C. Cold-curing systems intended to cure at other temperatures and hot-curing systems may only be used in accordance with a production specification approved by GL Wind.

(6)在室温固化(冷固化)的所有系统应保持在16℃-25℃,令人热满意的固化 。在其他温度范围的冷固化或者热固化,必须按照GL Wind的生产规范进行。

(7)Fillers shall not significantly impair the properties of the resins. The type and amount of filler may not lead to the resin properties seriously dropping below the nominal properties. In general, the proportion of fillers in the laminating resins shall not exceed 12 % by weight (including a maximum of 1.5 % by weight of thixotropic agent). If the manufacturer has laid down a lower figure, however, this shall apply. The proportion of thixotropic agent in the gelcoat resin may not exceed 3 % by weight.

(7)填充剂不应显著削弱树脂的性能。填充剂的类型和数量不可以导致树脂性能显著下降到低于正常的性能。总之,在层压树脂中的填充剂质量不应超过12%(包括最大质量分为1.5%的触变剂)。如果制造商使用添加剂的量低于这个标准,则可以使用。在凝胶涂层树脂触变剂的质量不应超过3%。

(8)Pigments shall be weatherproof and consist of inorganic or light-resistant organic colouring substances. Their maximum permitted proportion shall not exceed the figure laid down by the manufacturer, or else 5 % by weight.

(8)颜料应抗风化,应由无机的或者抗光氧化的有机色素组成。他们最大使用量不得超过制造商规定的数字,若没有规定,则质量不得超过5%。

3.3.3.4 Reinforcing materials

3.3.3.4增强材料

(1)Commonly used reinforcing materials with continuous filaments of glass, carbon fibre and aramide are available in various forms:

– Rovings: A large number of roughly parallel fibres bundled together, twisted or untwisted. In spray moulding processes, they can be used as cut rovings.

– Mat:    Random layering of continuous filaments or strands of fibres at least 50 mm long, bonded together by means of a binder.

– Fabric:    Fibre strands woven together, the conventional weave types for textiles such as linen, satin, twill or sateen being employed. Warp and weft may differ as regards material and/or thread count.

– Complex of fibres: Unidirectional layers of fibres randomly arranged one above the other, and either glued or tacked to one another or to mats by thin fibre strands. There may be differing materials and/or thread counts in the individual layers.

(1)通常使用的增强材料有玻璃纤维和碳纤维的连续细丝以及高强度芳族长丝纱,使用时有以下不同的形式:

-粗纱:大量的大致平行的纤维捆绑在一起,扭绞或者不扭绞。在注射成型的过程中,可采用粗纱的剪切段拉使用。

-垫子:至少50mm长的纤维连续细丝随机的压层,通过捆绑扎在一起。

-织布:纤维线编织在一起,以编织物如亚麻,绸缎,斜纹织物或者棉缎的编织类型。线数不同或者材料不同,都会引起弯曲和织物的不同。

-纤维的混合:单一方向的纤维层随机的摞在一起,或者展在一起,或用薄的纤维线变成席子状。在各自的层面上也许有不同的材料和/或者不同的线数。

(2)The fibres shall be given protective and/or adhesion-improving coatings (in the case of glass fibres “size”, in the case of carbon fibres “finish”, in that of aramide fibres “avivage”), matched to the intended laminate resin. This is necessary to ensure an adequate ageingand moisture-resistant bond between the fibres and laminating resin.

(2)这些纤维应能保护涂层和/或改善涂层的粘接性能(玻璃纤维中的“尺寸”,碳纤维中的“上漆”,高强度芳族长丝纱中的“柔化剂”),与层压树脂匹配。为确保纤维和层压树脂之间足够的防老化和防潮性,这是非常有必要的。

(3)For glass fibres, aluminium-boron-silicate glass (alkaline-oxide content < 1 %) shall preferably be used, for instance E-glass in accordance with VDE0334/Part 1 – Section 4. Other types of glass, such as R or S-glass, may also be permitted by GL Wind if suitable.

(3)对于玻璃纤维,铝-硼-硅玻璃纤维应优先考虑。如依照VDE0334/第一部分-第四节的E-玻璃纤维。其他类型的玻璃纤维,如R-玻璃纤维或者S-玻璃纤维,如果合适,GL Wind 也是可以允许的。

(4)For load-bearing structures, the average filament diameter of the glass fibres shall not exceed 20 µm without further proof (see Section 5.5.4, para 4).

(4)如果没有更进一步的证明,对于承载结构,玻璃纤维的平均细丝直径不得超过20um(见5.5.4部分,第四段)

(5)In the case of carbon fibres, pitch-based and “heavy tow” products are not permissible without further proof.

(5)对于碳纤维,没有更进一步的证明,沥青基和粗大纤维产品如果没有更进一步的证据,是不允许使用的。

Note:

注释:

Heavy tow fibres are carbon fibres with a filament count of 48 K to 320 K, exhibiting a carbonization grade less than 99 %.

粗纤维是具有48K到320K股数的碳纤维,碳化等级低于99% 。

3.3.3.5 Core materials

3.3.3.5核心材料

(1)Core materials shall be proved to be suitable for the intended purpose and shall not impair the curing of the laminating resin compound. Especially for rigid plastic foam, the permissible material temperature may not be exceeded when curing the laminating resin.

(1)核心材料应适合既定目的,不应削弱层压树脂的固化。尤其对于硬质塑料泡沫,所允许的材料的温度应不超过层压固化树脂的固化温度。

(2)Core materials other than those listed below may be used with the consent of GL Wind, provided they are suitable for the intended purpose.

(2)非下列列举的核心材料,如果适用于预期的目的,经GL Wind同意,也可以使用。

(3)Rigid plastic foam used as core material for sandwich laminates or as reinforcing webs shall have a closed-cell structure and shall be highly resistant to the laminating resin and the adhesive, as well as to ageing, and marine and industrial environments. Other requirements are a low water absorption capacity and a sufficient raw density.

(3)用于夹层板或者加强腹板的硬质塑料泡沫应是闭孔结构,应不与层压树脂和粘合剂反应,具有耐老化性和耐海运和工业环境性。其他的要求就是低的吸水性和足够的原材料密度。

(4)End-grain balsa intended for use as core material for sandwich laminates shall meet the requirements below. It shall

– be treated with fungicide and insecticide immediately after felling,

– be sterilised and homogenized,

– be kiln-dried within ten days of felling,

– have an average moisture content of 12 %.

Due to the possible water absorption of the end-grain balsa, it shall be completely sealed in the component.

(4) 用于夹层板核心材料的端向处理balsa木应满足以下要求:

-咬接后应立刻用杀菌剂和杀虫剂处理

-咬接十天内烘干

-应均一无菌

-具有平均吸潮容量为12%。

由于端向处理balsa木面可能吸水,应完全密封在部件中。

3.3.3.6 Prepregs

3.3.3.6预浸料

(1)Fibre reinforcement pre-impregnated with laminating resin compound (prepregs) shall meet the demands on its constituent parts. Furthermore, the resin content shall not be less than 35 % by volume, and there shall be adequate adhesiveness at working temperature.

(1)纤维增强预浸料应满足其组成部件的要求。此外,树脂含量体积分数应不少于35%,而且在工作温度要有足够的粘合性。

(2)For dry prepregs, the storage conditions and the shelf life shall be specified on the packaging. Prepregs shall no longer be used once the expiry date set by the manufacturer has passed, unless their suitability for further use has been verified by appropriate tests.

(2)对于干预浸料,储存条件和保存时间应在外包装上详细标明。预浸料一旦超过制造商规定的最后使用期就不能再使用,除非进一步使用的可靠性经合适的测试证明。

(3)For reinforcement materials with intermediate layers of reaction resin, similar requirements apply.

(3)对于反应树脂的增强材料,适用同样的要求。

3.3.3.7 Adhesives

3.3.3.7粘合剂

(1)Two-component reaction adhesives shall preferably be used, if possible based on the laminate resin compound.

(1)基于层压树脂混合物,如果可能,应考虑优先使用双部件反应粘合剂。

(2)Where hot-curing adhesives are used, the maximum permissible thermal stress on the materials to be bonded may not be exceeded. The same applies for single-component hot-melting adhesives.

(2)如果使用热固性粘合剂,不得超过粘结在一起的材料的最大允许热应力,这同样也适用于单一成分的热塑性粘合剂。

(3)The adhesives shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. They shall not affect the materials to be bonded and shall have a good resistance to moisture and ageing. The effect of temperature on the strength of the adhesive bond should be as low as possible.

(3)粘合剂应按照制造商的要求进行使用。应不影响粘结在一起的材料,而且要具备好的防潮性和防老化性。温度对粘合剂强度的影响应越低越好。

(4)The adhesives shall remain servicable up to at least 60 °C (see Section 5.5.2.2, para 4).

(4)粘合剂在温度达到60°C时仍能使用(见5.5.2.2,第四段)。

3.3.3.8 Approval of materials

3.3.3.8材料的批准

(1)If FRP components are manufactured for mounting on or installation in wind turbines and if an application for project certification has been submitted, then prior approval by GL is required for all materials. The approval conditions are specified in [3.1]. Approval by other authorities may be accepted in certain cases after consultation with GL Wind, provided the scope of the tests on which the approval is based meets the requirements.

(1)如果纤维增强塑料部件用于装备在风机内部或外部,且项目认证的申请已经提交,则要求优先让GL对所有材料进行批准。批准的条件规定见3.1章。如果批准的测试范围满足要求,在与GL Wind 协商以后,在特定的情况下,其他权威机构的批准也是可以接受的。

(2)Before manufacture of the components, the necessary material approvals shall be submitted in the above case. If none or not all of the necessary approvals are available, proof of the properties of the base materials may in exceptional cases, and with the agreement of GL Wind, be obtained in the context of the material tests required for the laminates of the component.

(2)在部件生产之前,以上所有情形中,应递交必需的材料批准。如果没有批准,或者没有全部批准,对于部件的压层,其特殊情形的基材,经过GL Wind的同意,其性能可以按照本文材料试验的内容,通过试验获得。

3.3.4Wood

3.3.4 木材

3.3.4.1 Types of wood

3.3.4.1木材的类型

Quality grade I pine wood of class S 13 according to DIN 4074 and quality grade I according to DIN 1052 or wood with equivalent strength properties shall be used, with a laminar thickness after planing which does not exceed 33 mm. For solid wood rotor blades, the board width shall not exceed 22 cm.

依据DIN 4074的级别S 13和依据DIN 1052的质量等级I的松木,或等效强度的木材可以使用,木材层厚不超过33mm。对于实心转子,板子宽度不得超过22cm。

3.3.4.2 Material testing and approval

3.3.4.2材料测试和批准

(1) All glue and coating components and all wood preservatives used in the manufacture of wooden rotor blades shall be approved in advance by GL. Approval shall be applied for from GL by the material manufacturer or supplier.

(1)木质转子叶片的制造商使用的所有胶水和胶衣、所有木材防腐剂必须经过GL事先批准。材料制造商或供应商必须经过GL的批准。

(2) Approval will be granted if testing under the surveillance of GL or a report from an independent testing body recognized by GL proves that the material meets all the requirements of GL.

(2)如果试验在GL监控下,或者是由GL认可的独立试验机构出具报告,证明材料满足GL的所有材料要求,则批准将被承认。

(3) The proofs shall be submitted before production commences.

(3)在生产开始之前,必须提交证据。

3.3.4.3 Glues and adhesives

3.3.4.3 胶水和添加剂

(1) Glues and adhesives used in the manufacture of wooden rotor blades shall be compatible with the wood constituents, wood preservatives and coating materials. They shall be resistant to ageing and fatigue in the face of sharp climatic variations.

(1)木制叶片所使用的胶水和添加剂必须和木材、木材防腐剂、油漆材料兼容。且在气候急剧变化时,应该耐老化,耐疲劳。

(2) Only resorcinol resin glues or epoxy resins shall be used. These shall have passed the test in accordance with DIN 68141.

(2)仅允许使用间苯二酚树脂或者环氧树脂。且这些树脂应通过DIN 68141所规定的试验。

(3) Synthetic resin glues and adhesives, their constituents plus coating materials shall no longer be used once the expiry date set by the manufacturer has passed, except with the consent of the manufacturer and GL Wind.

(3)合成树脂胶水和添加剂,一旦超过制造商规定的使用时间,除非得到GL Wind的同意,否则不得使用。

3.3.4.4 Surface protection

3.3.4.4表面防护

The surface protection shall ensure effective protection against moisture. The materials used shall exhibit high elasticity, shall be impermeable to water and shall have little tendency to absorb steam. They shall have good resistance to UV radiation and ageing and to marine, tropical and industrial environments. Furthermore, adequate resistance to abrasion shall be guaranteed. Compatibility with the wood constituents and pre-servatives shall be ensured. Fabric inserts may be used to prevent cracking.

表面保护应确保有效的表面防潮性。所适用的材料应具有高的弹性,不渗水,低趋势吸收蒸汽性能。要有高的耐老化性能,抗紫外性能和耐海运,热带和工业环境的性能。此外,还要具有足够的抗磨损性能。还应保证与木质成分的兼容和保存。纤维织物的插入用于防止开裂。

3.3.4.5 Wood preservatives

3.3.4.5木材防腐剂

Wood preservatives used shall have been proved to be compatible with glues and adhesives in accordance with DIN 52179. In addition, compatibility with the surface-protection materials shall be ensured.

所使用的木材防腐剂应按照DIN52179证实与胶料和粘合剂相容。此外,还要确保于表面防护的材料的相容性。

3.3.4.6 Mechanical fasteners

3.3.4.6机械固定件

Fasteners securing the wooden blades to the rotor hub shall be made from materials which guarantee long-term operation. If metal components are used, the design shall be such that it takes into account the great differences in stress and strain behaviour between these components and wood.

紧固轮毂和叶片的材料,必须保证其能够长时间运行。如果使用金属材料,则设计必须考虑这些部件和木头之间的压力和应力巨大差别。

3.3.5 Reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete

3.3.5 钢筋混凝土和预应力混凝土

3.3.5.1 General

3.3.5.1 概述

    (1) The subsections below apply to site-mixed concrete, ready-mixed concrete or factory-made concrete.

    (1)下面的部件应用于现场混合混凝土,预混混凝土或者预制混凝土。

    (2) They refer to the load-bearing and bracing components of non-reinforced, reinforced and prestressed concrete with a close-grained texture.

    (2)这里指的是有细晶粒结构的无钢筋加固,有钢筋加固和预应力混凝土制作的承载和支撑部件。

3.3.5.2 Standards

3.3.5.2标准

    (1) Recognized international or national standards relating to concrete structures shall be used as a basis for design, calculations and construction.

    (1)应采用公认的国际标准和国家标准作为混凝土结构的设计、计算和构造的基础。

    (2) The following are examples of recognized stan-dards which could be used:

    (2)以下是可能使用的公认标准的范例。

    – EN 1992 (Eurocode No. 2): Design of con-crete structures, or DIN 1045-1: Concrete, re-inforced and prestressed concrete structures

    EN 1992 (Eurocode No. 2):混凝土结构的设计,或者DIN 1045-1:加筋和预应力混凝土结构,第1部分:设计

    – EN 206 Concrete: Performance, production, placing and compliance criteria

    – EN 206 混凝土:性能,生产,销售和一致性标准

    – ENV 10080: Steel for the reinforcement of concrete

    – ENV 10080:加固混凝土的钢材

    – EN 10138: Prestressing steels

    – EN 10138:预应力钢筋

GL Wind shall be notified in good time of the standards intended to be used for design, calculations and construction, and their application shall be coordinated with GL Wind.

应及时告知GL Wind有关设计、计算、构造有关的标准,并同GL Wind协商。

3.3.5.3 Raw materials for concrete

3.3.5.3混凝土原材料

3.3.5.3.1 Cement types

3.3.5.3.1 水泥型号

The types of cement shall comply with EN 197 or DIN 1164 or the respective national standards or regulations applying where the concrete is being used.

水泥的型号必须符合EN 197或者DIN 1164标准、或者相关国家标准、或者混凝土所使用处的标准。

3.3.5.3.2 Concrete aggregate

3.3.5.3.2混凝土沙石

    (1) Aggregates shall comply with the requirements of the national standards or the regulations applying where the concrete is being used (e.g. DIN 4226-1). They shall not contain harmful constituents in such quantities that the durability of the concrete is adversely affected or corrosion of the reinforcing material is initiated.

    (1)所采用的沙石必须符合国家标准或者所使用处的标准(如 DIN 4226-1)。不得含有可对混凝土耐久性有害的物质,或者对加固材料有侵蚀的物质。

    (2) Aggregate with alkali-sensitive constituents may not be used as a rule.

    (2)对碱敏感的沙石不得使用。

    (3) Maximum grain size and grading curve of the aggregate shall be selected in accordance with EN 206.

    (3)沙石的最大颗粒尺寸和级配曲线必须依据EN 206来选择。

3.3.5.3.3 Added water

3.3.5.3.3 添加水

The added water shall not contain harmful constituents in such quantities as to impair setting, hardening and durability of the concrete or to initiate corrosion of the reinforcing material. In Europe, drinking water from public supplies is in general suitable for making con-crete.

添加水不得含有有害物质,以免削弱混凝土的安装、固化和耐久性,不得含有对加固材料有侵蚀作用的物质。在欧洲,从公共场所出来的饮用水通常用来制作混凝土。

3.3.5.3.4 Admixtures

3.3.5.3.4附加剂

    (1) Concrete admixtures may be used for concrete and cement mortar only if tests have shown that they do not produce adverse changes in important properties of the concrete nor impair the corrosion protection of the reinforcement. Special suitability tests for the concrete to be made may in individual cases be required by GL Wind.

    (1)只有经过试验证明附加剂不会对混凝土的重要特性产生有害影响,也不会对加固材料造成腐蚀,才允许使用附加剂。在某些特殊情形下,GL Wind会要求对附加剂进行特殊的适用性试验。

    (2) Chlorides, chloride-bearing or other steel-corrosion-promoting materials may not be added to reinforced or prestressed concrete.

    (2)氯化物,含氯化物,或其他加强钢铁腐蚀的材料不得添加到钢筋混凝土或者预应力混凝土中。

3.3.5.3.5 Additives

3.3.5.3.5 添加剂

Additives may only be applied to the concrete mix in such quantities that they do not impair the durability of the concrete or result in corrosion of the reinforce-ment.

只允许使用不会削弱混凝土的耐久性,或者不会腐蚀加固材料的添加剂。

Table 3.3.2 Strength classes for concrete

表3.3.2 混凝土强度等级

1在欧洲fck,cyl等同于强度等级fck。

3.3.5.4 Building materials

3.3.5.4 建筑材料

3.3.5.4.1 Concrete

3.3.5.4.1 混凝土

    (1) The composition of concrete shall be so chosen that all requirements regarding the properties of the green and the set concrete are met, including consistency, bulk density, strength and durability plus protection of steel reinforcement against corrosion. The composition shall be adjusted to the workability necessary for the construction method adopted.

    (1) 混凝土的成分,须满足所有环保特性要求以及所有预制混凝土的要求,包括密度,体积密度,强度,耐久性,钢铁抗腐蚀保护等。对于所采用的构造方法,混凝土成分应调整可使用状态。

    (2) The concrete is classified according to its compressive strength at the age of 28 days into strength classes in accordance with Table 3.3.2. The compressive strength is determined with the aid of standard test procedures (e.g. in accordance with EN 206) applied to either concrete cylinders or cubes with an edge length of 15 cm.

    (2) 在第28天,混凝土按照压缩强度,依据表3.3.2进行强度分类。压缩强度通过标准试验程序方法(比如,标准 EN 206),在混凝土圆柱体上面或边长15cm的混凝土块上来测定。

    (3) This Guideline is based on the characteristic cylinder compressive strength (28-day-strength) fck. It is defined as the strength figure above which 95 % of the population of all possible strength measurements of the concrete in question may be expected to lie (95 % fractile). This shall be verified with a confidence level of 95 %.

    (3) 本指南建立在典型柱状压缩强度fck的基础上(28天的强度)。对于强度数值超过混凝土所有可能强度测量总量的95%,则数据可能是错误的(95%分位点)。应进行95%的置信度验证。

3.3.5.4.2 Concrete-reinforcing steel

3.3.5.4.2 钢筋混凝土

    (1) This sub-section applies to concrete-reinforcing steel, from coil and mats, used as reinforcement in concrete structures.

    (1) 本部分适用于钢筋混凝土,从卷到垫,用于混凝土建筑的加固。

    (2) Diameter, surface characteristics, strength prop-erties and marking of concrete reinforcing steels shall correspond to the standards (e.g. ENV 10080, DIN 488). If welding is to be carried out on concrete-reinforcing steels, only grades suitable for this may be used (e.g. according to DIN 488, Part 1).

    (2) 直径,表面特性,强度特性,混凝土加强钢筋的标记都必须符合标准(比如 ENV 10080,DIN 488)。如果允许在钢筋上施焊,则仅允许使用适用等级的钢筋(如 DIN 488, Part 1)。

3.3.5.4.3 Prestressing steel and prestressing procedure

3.3.5.4.3 预加强筋和预加强工艺

    (1) This sub-section applies to wires, rods and braids that are used as prestressing elements in concrete structures.

    (1)本部分适用于混凝土结构中作为加强元素的钢筋,钢棒,钢网。

    (2) The properties of the prestressing steel shall correspond to the standards (e.g. EN 10138) and shall be proved by certificates from the manufacturer. In particular, data and test results concerning the composition of the steel, mode of production, stress-strain characteristic, elastic limit, yield point, tensile strength, fatigue strength and creep limit shall be submitted. This documentation may be replaced by a type approval of the relevant authorities.

    (2) 预加强筋的特性必须符合标准要求(如EN 10138),必须有制造商的证明书来证明。特殊情况下,应提交有关钢筋成分,生产模式,应力-应变特性,弹性限值,屈服点,拉伸强度,疲劳强度,延伸限值等的数据和试验结果。这个文件也可以由相关权威机构的类型认证书所替代。

    (3) For the prestressing procedure (anchors, cou-plings, grout pipes, etc.), a type approval according to the applicable standards is generally required.

    (3) 对于预应力工艺(定位,连接,水泥砂浆管等),通常要求有依据适当标准的类型认证。

3.3.5.4.4 Grouting mortar

3.3.5.4.4 水水泥砂浆

    (1) The grouting mortar is made from cement, water and admixtures/additions, its function being to ensure a good bond between prestressing elements and enclosing body and to protect the enclosed steel against corrosion, by enveloping the elements and filling up all the spaces inside the sheath.

    (1) 水水泥砂浆由水泥,水和附加剂/添加剂组成,通过密封部件,填充所有壳体内的空间的方式,确保预应力部件和内部结构之间的良好粘接,以及保护内部钢筋,防止腐蚀。

    (2) As a rule, only Portland cement shall be used. Drinking water from public supplies is in the great majority of cases suitable for making grouting cement. Admixtures and additives shall comply with the standards.

    (2) 只允许使用portland水泥。使用公共场合的饮用水来制作水水泥砂浆很普遍。附加剂和添加剂必须符合标准要求。

    3.3.5.4.5 Steel for fixtures and prestressed high-tensile bolts

    3.3.5.4.5 固定物用钢和预应力高张力螺栓用钢

    (1) Fixtures are normally made from S 235 or S 355 (see Section 3.3.2) in compliance with standards (e.g. EN 10025).

    (1)固定物通常用S 235和S 355钢制成,符合标准要求(如EN 10025)。

    (2) Prestressed high-tensile bolts shall be used in accordance with the standards. Only bolts in strength classes 8.8 or 10.9 shall be used.

    (2) 预应力高张力螺栓的使用必须和标准相符。只允许使用8.8或10.9级的螺栓。

3.3.5.5 Durability of the concrete

3.3.5.5 混凝土的耐久性

    (1) In order to produce a concrete of adequate durability, which protects the reinforcing steel against corrosion and adequately withstands the external and operating conditions to which it is exposed during the anticipated working life of the structure, the following factors shall be taken into consideration:

    (1)为制造一个有足够耐久性的混凝土结构,那些防止加强筋腐蚀,在建筑工作寿命期内,暴露在外的充分耐受外界和运行条件的部件,必须考虑一下因素:

    – selection of suitable raw materials that do not contain any harmful constituents which may impair the concrete’s durability and cause cor-rosion of the reinforcing material

    –选择合适的原材料,不含任何可以削弱混凝土耐久性,不含可导致加强材料腐蚀的有害成分。

    – Selection of a suitable composition for the concrete so that it

    –选择合适的混凝土成分,以便:

    – meets all the criteria laid down for the properties of green and set concrete,

    满足以下环境特性和基础混凝土特性的所有标准,

    – can be so poured and compacted that a dense concrete covering layer is formed,

    –可以被灌注和压紧,以形成致密的外层,

    – withstands internal influences, and

    –耐受内部影响

    – withstands external influences, e.g. environmental ones.

    –耐受外部影响,比如环境方面。

    – attacks of a mechanical nature

    –机械特性的冲击

    – mixing, pouring and compacting of the green concrete so that the raw materials are distributed evenly throughout the mixture and do not bleed, and a close-grained texture for the concrete is achieved

    –环保混凝土的混合,浇筑压实,可以促使原材料均匀分布,不至于渗漏,使混凝土获得致密的晶体结构。

    – curing of the concrete so that in particular the portion near the surface (covering layer) attains the properties to be expected from its composition

    –混凝土固化,使得靠近表层的部分达到特性。

    (2) Information on defining the environmental con-ditions for the design can be obtained from e.g. DIN EN 206.

    (2)设计中关于环境条件的定义,可以从DIN EN 206获得。

    (3) All these factors shall be controlled and verified by the constructor, subcontractor or supplier within their respective zones of responsibility, in an overall context of their respective internal surveillance (production control).

    (3)以上所有因素都必须被控制,并经过建造者、子承包商或者供应商在各自相关的责任范围内,以各自内部监督(产品控制)的全部内容中确认。

 

 

 

3.4Production and Testing

3.4 生产和测试

3.4.1General

3.4.1 概述

(1)The manufacturers shall ensure that only recognized and approved production processes are used and that the conditions defined as a basis for the recognition and approval are observed.

(1)制造商应确保使用经过验证的和认可的生产工艺,并且确保遵守那些认证和批准的基本条件。

(2)Further information on the following sections is given in [3.2]. Furthermore, the welding workshops shall observe the requirements set out in Section 1.2 for the certification of components for wind turbines.

(2)在[3.2]中,给出了下面几节更详细的信息。此外,焊接车间必须满足第1.2节中提到的认证风机零件的要求。

3.4.2Welding

3.4.2 焊接

3.4.2.1 Prerequisites of the works

3.4.2.1 工作前提

(1)Companies intending to carry out welding shall be approved for such work by a recognized body. According to German Building Law, proof of welding qualifications as per DIN 18800-7 may be necessary. The companies shall have suitable workshops, facilities, machines and arrangements in the required quantity and scope to ensure competent execution of the welding work. This also includes, for example, machines and facilities for expert preparation of the joints to be welded, operationally safe welding machines and appliances, storage and drying arrangements for welding fillers and auxiliary materials, facilities for preheating and heat treatment, test equipment and materials, as well as weather protection for performing welding work in the open.

(1)从事焊接的企业需要认证机构的批准。根据德国建筑法,如DIN18800-7标准,焊接资格认证是必要的。为了确保有能力完成焊接工作,在数量和范围上,公司应具有合适的车间,设施,机器和布置。这也包括,例如,专门用于焊接接缝的机器和设施,安全操作焊接的机器和设备,对焊接填料和辅助材料的储存和烘干设备,预热和热处理设施,试验设备和材料,以及露天焊接的气候保护。

(2)For assembly and welding-up, it is recommended that appliances be used to guarantee the dimensional accuracy of the components. The appliances should be such that the weld seams are easily accessible and in the most favourable position for welding.

(2)对于装配和焊接,建议使用能确保部件尺寸精度的工具,这些工具应该是这样的,即焊接缝隙容易接近并且在最有利的位置处焊接。

3.4.2.2 Welders, welding supervision

3.4.2.2 焊工,焊接监督

(1)All welding work on components in accordance with Section 3.3.1 shall be carried out only by welders tested in the relevant method, approved by GL or the relevant approval body, and holding valid test certificates. The welders’ tests shall be carried out under the supervision of GL or a recognized testing body in accordance with the relevant standards (e.g. EN 287, ISO 9606). Equivalent welders’ tests carried out in accordance with other rules or standards by a testing body not connected with the welding company may be recognized.

(1)依照第3.3.1,只有通过焊工才能完成所有部件的焊接工作,焊工应该通过相关方法的测试,并通过GL认证或相关机构的认证,以及持有有效检验证书。焊工的测试依照相关标准(如EN287,ISO9606),在GL或一个被认可的测试机构的监督下完成。依照其它的规定或标准,通过一个与焊接公司无关联的测试机构进行的同等的焊工测试可能被认可。

(2)The period of validity of a welder’s test is normally two years. A repeat test may be carried out only for the welding process and the test group in which the initial test was taken. The documents relating to the initial test shall be submitted to GL Wind on request. Any special features of the initial test shall also be included in the repeat test. If a repeat test is carried out with a scope restricted relative to the standards, an originally comprehensive initial test becomes similarly restricted. An extension can only be granted in conjunction with a comprehensive initial test.

(2)一个焊工测试的有效期一般是2年。复试可以只针对焊接工艺和初试的试验范围进行。相关的初试文件应按要求提供给GL Wind。复试包括初试的所有特征。如果复试被限制在一定的标准范围内,那么最初的综合测试同样被限制。只有与综合初试一起才能被扩充。

(3)Any company carrying out welding work shall have available at least one welding supervisor permanently employed by the company, together with a deputy. Welding supervisors shall have training and experience that meet the requirements of production, and shall provide proof of their professional qualifications. Depending on the type and scope of the welding to be done, the welding supervisor may for example be a specialist welder, a welding technician or a welding engineer. If the welding workshop has been approved by GL, any changes in the welding-supervisory personnel shall be reported automatically. Welding supervisors shall exercise responsible supervision over the preparation and execution of the work.

(3)任何进行焊接工作的公司,至少应该聘用一个焊接管理员,连同一个代理。焊接管理员有满足生产要求的培训技能和经验,并能提供他们的专业资格认证证明。依据焊接的类型和范围,焊接管理员有例如专用焊工,焊接技术员或焊接工程师。如果焊接车间通过了GL认证,则焊接管理人员的任何变化将被自动地报告。焊接管理员行使负责监督的准备和实施工作。

3.4.2.3 Welding method, welding procedure tests

3.4.2.3 焊接方法,焊接工艺试验

(1)Only those welding methods shall be used whose suitability for the particular application is known from general experience or has been proved in a welding procedure test.

(1)只有适合特定应用的焊接方法才能被应用,这些特定应用为一般经验所获知,或已经在焊接工艺实验中证明。

(2)The scope of testing, test pieces, specimens and requirements for the welding procedure test shall be determined for each individual case on the basis of the base material, welding method and range of application applied for.

(2)对每个单个情况,以基材,焊接方法和应用范围为基础,来决定试验、试验件和样本的范围,以及焊接工艺实验要求的范围。

3.4.2.4 Welding fillers and auxiliary materials

3.4.2.4焊接填充物和辅助材料

(1)All welding fillers and auxiliary materials used (e.g. rod electrodes, wire/powder combinations) shall be approved by GL or the relevant approval body. The quality grade required depends on the base materials to be welded.

(1)所有使用的焊接填充物和辅助材料(如电极杆,wire/powder combinations)应通过GL或相关认证机构的认证。质量等级取决于焊接的基本材料。

(2)Welding fillers and auxiliary materials may also be tested and approved together with the welding method. However, such approval is restricted to the user company and valid for a maximum of one year unless repeat tests are carried out. Welding fillers and auxiliary materials so tested may be replaced by others which are equivalent and have been approved by GL with a corresponding quality grade, if this is expressly stated in the procedure approval.

(2)焊接填充物和辅助材料也可和焊接方法同时试验和核准。然而,这种核准仅限于使用者的公司,除非进行复试,否则有效期最长为一年。如果在认证过程中明确说明,则被试验的焊接填充物和辅助材料,可以被其它相关质量等级的且通过了GL认证的等同物所取代。

3.4.2.5 Weld joint design

3.4.2.5 焊缝设计

(1)The welds shall be planned right from the beginning of the design stage so as to be easily accessible during production and any testing that may be necessary, and to permit their execution in as favourable a sequence and position as possible. In this context, it shall be ensured that the internal stresses and distortions remaining in the components after fabrication are as low as possible. Small distances between welds and local concentrations of welds shall be avoided.

(1)从开始设计阶段就应规划好焊缝,使得生产和试验期间更容易实现,使得焊接过程、焊接位置最有利。应确保加工后留在部件内的内应力和变形尽可能的低。应避免焊缝之间的小间隙,以及局部焊接富余。

(2)For welding in cold-worked areas, the minimum bending radii (e.g. according to DIN 18800) shall be observed.

(2)在冷加工区的焊缝,应满足最小弯曲半径(如根据标准DIN18800)。

(3)Butt welded joints (e.g. square, singleor double-V butt welds) and corner or cross welds (e.g. singleor double-bevel welds) should be so planned that it is possible throughout to weld through the full crosssection of the plate or profile. To this end, the components shall be prepared for appropriate types of seam, depending on plate thicknesses, according to the DIN standards (e.g. DIN EN 29692) with an adequate aperture angle, sufficient air gap and as narrow a root face as possible.

(3)对接焊缝(如面对接、单或双V对接焊缝)以及角焊或交叉焊缝(单或双斜面焊缝)应该规划好,使板或轮廓整个截面的焊接连贯。最后,根据板厚和DIN标准(如DIN EN29692),用合适的缝隙角,足够的空气间隙和尽可能小的根面,为部件准备合适的焊缝类型。

(4)Depending on the welding method, the root shall generally be grooved out on the rear side before the capping passes are welded. Special forms of seam require the consent of GL Wind; if necessary, the form of seam will be determined in conjunction with a welding procedure test.

(4)根据焊接方法,在焊接the capping passes前,通常在根部的背面上开槽。焊缝的具体形状要求通过GL Wind认可;如果必要,焊缝的形状通过焊接工艺试验来决定。

t (where t = thickness of the thinner section). Except in the case of walls and similar light-gauge components, a fillet weld shall not be less than 3.0 mm thick. (5)Fillet welded joints shall be made continuous on both sides wherever possible. The seam thickness depends on the particular load, and shall be verified by calculation as a rule. The a-dimension shall not exceed 0.7 ⋅

(5)角焊缝接头应尽可能两边连续。焊缝厚度取决于特殊载荷,且同常通过计算来验证。A-尺寸不能超过0.7•t(这里t=较小截面的厚度)。除了壁和轻薄部件的情况外,焊缝厚度不能小于3mm。

t + 15 mm, where t is the thickness of the thinner plate. The fillet welds shall be made in accordance with the above specifications. In the case of joints between bars in a lattice structure, the requirements according to DIN 18800-1 apply. (6)Overlap joints should only be used for relatively low-stressed components and if possible only parallel to the direction of the principal stress. The width of the overlap shall be at least 1.5 ⋅

(6)搭接接头应只用于相对较低强度的部件上,如果可能,只与主应力方向平行。搭接宽度至少为1.5•t + 15mm,这里t是较薄板的厚度。角焊应满足上述要求。格子结构中栅间的接缝,应根据标准DIN18800-1的要求。

3.4.2.6 Execution and testing

3.4.2.6 执行和测试

(1)Around the area of the weld, the components shall be clean and dry. Scale, rust, slag, grease, paint (except shop primers) and dirt shall be removed carefully prior to welding. If plates, sections or components have a corrosion-reducing shop primer applied before welding, this shall not impair the quality of the welded joint. Shop primer materials shall be approved by GL or the relevant approval body for welding-over.

(1)在焊缝周围的区域,部件应清洁和干燥。焊接前,应除去污垢,铁锈,渣,油脂,油漆(除了预涂底漆)和灰尘。即使截面或部件在焊接前使用了防腐的底漆,也不会损害焊缝接口的质量。底漆材料应通过GL或相关的焊接认证机构的认证。

(2)When preparing components and fitting them together, care shall be taken to ensure that prescribed joint geometry and root face (air) gaps are maintained. Where the permissible root face gap is exceeded slightly, it may be reduced by build-up welding at the flanks of the seam. Inserts or wires may not be welded into the gap. Larger gaps may be closed by welding-in a sufficiently large plate strip or profile section.

(2)当预备部件和装配它们时,请确保获得规定的接缝外形和根部面(气)缝隙。当根部面缝隙略微超标时,可通过在焊缝侧翼焊接的方法来减小间隙。不能在间隙中焊接插入物或者金属丝。更大的缝隙则焊接足够大的带状板或型材来封闭。

(3)Plates and sections shall be aligned precisely, especially where joints are interrupted by transverse members. The maximum permissible edge mismatch is 10 % of the plate or section thickness, up to a maximum of 3 mm. GL Wind may demand tighter tolerances, e.g. for reasons of fatigue strength.

(3)应正确地排列板和截面,特别是在被横向部件中断的接缝。最大允许错边是板或截面厚度的10%,最多为3mm。GL Wind 要求更严格的公差,例如疲劳强度的原因。

(4)The working area shall be protected against the weather during welding. At low temperatures (less than 5 °C), appropriate measures shall be taken to ensure faultless execution of the welds. At temperatures below –10 °C, welding shall cease. Rapid cooling shall be avoided; if necessary (i.e. depending on the type of material, component thickness, ambient temperature), preheating shall be carried out before welding.

(4)焊接过程中,应保护工作区不受天气影响。在低温(小于5ºC)时,应采取适当措施确保焊接的正确进行。当温度低于-10 ºC时,停止焊接。避免快速冷却;如果必要的话(也就是根据材料类型,部件厚度,环境温度),焊接前要进行预热。

(5)Welding work should be performed in the most favourable welding position. A suitable construction and welding sequence shall be chosen to allow the parts to shrink with as little resistance as possible and to minimize the contraction stresses.

(5)焊接工作,应在最有利的焊接处进行。选择适合的结构和焊接顺序,以允许零件尽可能地减小收缩阻力和尽可能地减小缩应力。

(6)When welding, care shall be taken to achieve uniform penetration, thorough fusion and uniform lowprofile seam surfaces with a notch-free transition to the base material. In multi-pass welding, the slag from preceding passes shall be removed carefully. Cracks (including cracked tack welds), large pores or slag inclusions etc. may not be welded over; they shall be removed.

(6)焊接时,应均匀渗透,完全熔接,接缝面均匀无突变。在多道焊接中,应小心地除去前次留下的夹渣。裂缝(包括点焊),大气孔或夹渣等不能再次焊接,应除去它们。

(7)Repair of major defects in material or workmanship may only be undertaken with the consent of GL Wind. Minor surface flaws should if possible be removed by shallow grinding. Deeper faults shall be machined out cleanly and rewelded. In the case of cracks, if complete or partial replacement of the component is not required and cracks are to be welded-up with the consent of GL Wind, the length and course shall be clearly established by means of a suitable test method. The crack shall be machined out to beyond its ends and then welded-up.

(7)只有通过了GL Wind的认证,才能对材料和工艺上主要缺陷进行修复。轻微的表面缺陷应尽可能地通过浅磨的方式去除。较深的缺陷应彻底地加工并重新焊接。在有裂缝的情况下,如果不要求全部或部分地更换部件,则经过GL Wind认可,可以焊接裂缝,可用合适的试验方法确定焊接长度和路线。裂缝应机加工至其末端,然后焊接。

(8)Competent, faultless and complete execution of the welds shall be ensured by careful in-house monitoring. GL Wind checks the welding work on a once-only basis during implementation of the design requirements in production and erection (see Section 1.2.5.3 / Type Certification), on a random-sampling basis during manufacture (see Section 1.2.6.2 / Project Certification), and if appropriate during the final inspection following completion. GL Wind may reject components which have not been adequately monitored and demand resubmission after successful monitoring and, if necessary, corrective measures by the company.

(8)应通过严密的内部监控保证完美、正确和完整的焊接。在生产和树立时,设计要求的执行过程中,GL Wind以once-only为依据检查焊接工作(见第1.2.5.3/类型认证),在制造及完成最后检查过程中,以随机抽样为依据来检查焊接工作(见第1.2.6.2/工程认证)。GL Wind可能会拒绝没有被完全监测的部件,并且在成功监测后要求重新提交,如果必要的话,要求公司采取纠正措施。

(9)In cases of doubt, GL Wind may call for additional tests (e.g. non-destructive tests to prove faultless seam quality) of important components. The type and scope of the tests is laid down by GL Wind individually for each case.

(9)如有疑问,GL Wind会要求重要部件的额外试验(如非破坏性实验以证明无缺陷焊缝的质量)。GL Wind单独地为每一种情况给出了试验的类型和范围。

3.4.3Laminating fibre-reinforced plastics

3.4.3 复合纤维增强塑料

3.4.3.1 Requirements for manufacturers

3.4.3.1 制造商要求

(1)All workshops, store-rooms and their operational equipment shall meet the requirements of the relevant safety authorities and employers’ liability insurance associations. The responsibility for compliance with these requirements is solely the company’s.

(1)所有车间、库房和他们的操作设备应符合相关的安全当局和雇主的责任保险协会的要求。公司应无条件地遵守这些要求。

(2)The danger of contamination of materials for laminating shall as a rule be kept to a minimum by rigorous separation of production areas and other workshops as well as store-rooms. Only the quantity of materials required for production within the next two days shall be stored in the laminating workshops.

(2)通过严格地将生产区域和其它车间及库房分离的方法,使复合材料被污染的危险保持在最低。层压车间只能储藏两天内要加工的材料。

(3)Whilst laminating and gluing is progressing, dust-generating machinery may be operated in the laminating workshop only to a limited extent and only if fitted with a dust collection unit. Painting or spraying work is only permissible within the laminating workshop if the company can ensure that such activities will not affect the laminating quality.

(3)当进行层压和粘胶工艺时,车间内限制可产生灰尘的机器,除非其安装有灰尘收集器。除非制造商能确保油漆和喷涂作业不会影响层压质量,否则,层压车间不得进行油漆和喷涂作业。

3.4.3.2 Laminating workshops

3.4.3.2 层压车间

(1)Laminating workshops shall be totally enclosed spaces capable of being heated as well as having ventilation supply and exhaust equipment. An ambient temperature of between 16 °C and 25 °C with a maximum relative humidity of between 20 % RH and 75 % RH shall be maintained as a rule during laminating work and curing. If the manufacturers of the laminating resins or adhesives have specified other processing temperatures, these shall apply.

(1)层压车间应该有完全密闭的空间,能够加热,以及拥有通风排气设备。在层压工作固化的过程中,通常,环境温度保持在16ºC~25ºC,最大相对湿度保持在20%RH~25%RH。如果层压树脂或粘合剂制造商已经指定了其它的加工温度,则按指定的应用。

(2)Thermographs and hygrographs shall be provided for monitoring the climatic conditions, whereby it shall be possible to read off the climatic conditions directly at any time. The location of the instruments shall be agreed with GL Wind, their number and arrangement depending on the operational conditions. The instruments shall bear valid calibration marks; the records on the climatic conditions shall be kept for a period of at least 10 years and submitted to GL Wind on demand.

(2)提供温度记录计和湿度记录计用来监测气候条件,这样就能随时直接地读出气候条件。设备的安装位置应遵守GL Wind,其数量和布局依据运行条件。仪器应有有效期标记,记录至少保存十年,并按要求提交给GL Wind。

(3)The provision of ventilation supply and exhaust equipment shall be such that an impairment of the materials is excluded and e.g. no unacceptable amounts of solvent are extracted from the laminate.

(3)提供通风排气设备以消除材料污染损害,举例来说,达到可接受的压层中挥发的溶剂蒸汽量。

(4)The work places shall be illuminated in a suitable manner, precautionary measures being taken to prevent the controlled curing of the laminating resin from being impaired by the light from either the sun or the light fitting.

(4)工作场地的照明要采用合适方式。采取预防措施来防止层压树脂的控制固化被太阳光或灯光损坏。

(5)The laminating workshops shall be of adequate size (floor area and ceiling height), in order that the components are easily accessible and the intended production processes can take place without hindrance.

(5)层压车间要有足够的尺寸(厂房面积和房顶高度),可方便的近部件,使得生产过程顺利进行。

3.4.3.3 Store-rooms

3.4.3.3 储藏室

(1)Laminating resin compounds and adhesives shall be stored according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The temperature in the store-rooms shall be recorded continuously.

(1)层压树脂化合物和胶粘剂应根据制造商的说明储存。储藏室温度应连续地记录。

(2)Prepregs shall be stored in special refrigerated compartments in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. The temperature shall be recorded continuously.

(2)预浸料坯应根据制造商的说明储存到特殊的冷藏厢内。温度应连续记录。

(3)Reinforcing materials, core materials, fillers and additives shall be stored within closed containers in dust-free, dry conditions. The humidity in these spaces shall be recorded continuously and should not exceed 70 % RH or 80 % RH for short periods.

(3)加强材料,芯材,填料以及填加剂应储存在无尘、干燥的密封容器内。湿度应连续记录,且短期内相对湿度不能超过70%或80%。

(4)Storage shall be arranged in such a way that the designation of the materials, and the storage conditions and maximum storage periods (expiration dates) prescribed by the manufacturer, are easily visible. Materials whose storage period has been exceeded shall be marked as being prohibited for use and then removed from the store as soon as possible.

(4)用这样一种方法来安排仓库,即制造商规定的材料名称,存储条件和最大储存期限(有效期)是容易看得见的。过了有效期的材料应做上标记以防止被使用,并尽快地从库房中撤走。

2 °C) to the processing temperature with the packaging remaining sealed. (5)Quantities of materials due to be processed shall be brought to the processing rooms in good time to allow them to adjust properly (∆T ≤

(5)应及时将要加工的材料量送到加工车间,使得它们未开箱时温度调整到( )加工温度。

Note:

注释:

This temperature adjustment is necessary to ensure that the dewpoint is not reached.

为了确保不达到露点,温度调整是必要的。

(6)Packages removed from store and opened may be returned to store only in defined cases (e.g. hotcuring prepregs).

(6)从仓库中移走并开箱的材料只有在特定的情况(例如热固化预浸料)下才能返回到仓库中。

3.4.3.4 Processing requirements

3.4.3.4 工艺要求

(1)If rotor blades, shafts or other components are manufactured from FRP for mounting on or installation in wind turbines and if an application for project certification has been submitted for the wind turbine, then as a matter of principle only materials approved by GL shall be used for production. As well as suitable and approved materials being selected, their processing shall be treated with special care because of its significant influence on the properties of the product.

(1)安装在风机内的以FRP为原料的叶片,轴或其它部件,以及如果风机的项目认证申请被提交,那么,作为原则性问题,只有通过了GL认证的材料才能被用于生产。除了选择合适的和通过认证了的材料外,还要特别关心它们的处理工艺,因为工艺对产品的性能有重要的影响。

(2)Prior to the commencement of production, the manufacturer shall convince himself that the materials can be combined and are suitable for the intended process.

(2)开始生产前,制造商要确信材料能够被结合并适合于预定进程。

(3)For the preparation and processing of the resin compounds, the instructions of the material manufacturer plus any other applicable regulations, such as those of the relevant safety authorities and employers’ liability insurance associations, shall be observed in addition to this Guideline.

(3)为准备和加工树脂化合物,除了本方针外,还应遵守材料制造商的说明以及任何其它的适用的规定,如相关的安全当局和顾主责任保险协会。

(4)Resin and reaction agent shall be mixed in such a way that they are evenly distributed, care being taken to beat in as little air as possible. There may be cases where de-gassing of the resin compound under vacuum is necessary.

(4)树脂反应剂应这样混合,即它们是均匀分布,尽量去除空气,真空条件下树脂复合材料的脱气是必要的。

(5)If rigid plastic foam is used as the core material, this shall be degassed beforehand and if necessary tempered. In particular for slotted core materials, it shall be ensured that the material properties which were established as a basis within the scope of verification are achieved during the processing activities.

(5)如果硬泡沫塑料用做芯材,则应预先脱气,如果必要的话,还要调质处理。特别对于有孔芯材材料,应确保在加工过程中达到材料的性能,这些同性能是验证范围的基础。

(6)During production, the processing time for the mixed resin compound specified by the manufacturer shall not be exceeded. In the absence of such information, the pot time shall be established in a preliminary test and the processing time then laid down in consultation with GL Wind.

(6)在生产过程中,处理时间不能超过制造商指定的混合树脂复合材料的处理时间。如没有这方面的信息,通过初步试验确定罐装时间,然后通过与GL Wind协商确定处理时间。

(7)It is not possible for this Guideline to cover all the details of every production process. Deviation from this part of the Guideline is therefore possible after consultation with GL Wind.

(7)指南不可能覆盖生产过程的每一个细节。与本指南不同的部分必须和GL Wind磋商。

(8)Prior to the start of laminating work, the mould surfaces shall be treated with an adequate quantity of a suitable release agent and brought up to the planned processing temperature. The surfaces shall be dry and dust-free. Release agents containing silicone are inadmissible.

(8)在铺层以前,模具表面应涂上足量的脱模剂,达到计划的生产温度。表面应该干燥无尘。脱模剂中不能有硅树脂。

3.4.3.5 Building-up the laminate

3.4.3.5 铺层

(1)If surface protection is to be achieved by means of a gelcoat, the resin shall be applied in a uniform layer of thickness in accordance with the approved production specification, using a suitable process.

(1)如果表面通过胶衣来保护,则根据生产规范,使用适当的工艺,使树脂层保持均匀的厚度。

(2)The first layer of laminate shall be applied as soon as possible after application of the gelcoat. For this, a reinforcement layer of low weight per unit surface and high resin content (e.g. in the case of glass fibre, max. 300 g/m² and 35 % glass by weight) shall be used.

(2)第一层应该尽可能地使用胶衣。为此,将使用低重量和高树脂含量的增强层(如玻璃纤维最大重量为300g/㎡和,玻璃占35%的重量)。

(3)The laminate shall be built up in accordance with the approved production specification. The reinforcement layers shall be adequately deaerated and compressed so that the required fibre content is attained. Resin enrichment shall be avoided.

(3)根据生产规范建立铺层。增强层应该充分地除去气泡和压缩以获得要求的纤维含量。应避免树脂过多。

(4)The maximum thickness of the material that can be cured in one step is determined by the maximum permissible heat generation. In the case of vacuum bagging, the decisive factor as a rule is the maximum number of layers from which air can still be totally removed.

(4)材料的最大厚度由最大允许热量决定。在真空灌注情况下,通常决定性的因素是去除空气的最大层数。

(5)If the laminating process is interrupted for more than three days in the case of cold-curing resins, the surface of the cured laminate shall be roughened and cleaned to obtain a surface providing adequate bonding. Deviating manufacturer’s instructions (e.g. in the case of polyester resins with skin-forming additives) shall be followed.

(5)如果层压工艺在冷凝固树脂的情况下中断超过了三天,为获得一个能充分粘结的表面,应该打磨清理凝固层表面。应偏离制造商的说明(如在不饱和聚脂树脂和表面成型添加剂)。

(6)Transitions between different thicknesses of laminate shall be made gradually. The minimum value of the step length L [mm] for a laminate layer with a thickness d [mm] and fracture stress S [N/mm²] can be determined as follows:

L = (S/10 N/mm²)*d

If the attachment or cutting of reinforcement layers is unavoidable, e.g. in the case of complicated mouldings, then cut edges shall overlap or reinforcement strips shall be provided. In the butt or seam region of laminates, any reinforcement layer shall overlap by at least the value specified above for the step length.

(6)不同的铺层厚度间的转换是逐渐的。铺层步长的最小值L与厚度d和破坏应力间的关系由下式决定:

L = (S/10 N/mm²)*d

如果增强层的增加或减少是不可避免的,如在复杂模制的情况下,切边应重叠或应提供增强带。在层压接触区,任何增强层都要以上面指定的幅值达接,。

(7)In the transition region from a sandwich construction to solid laminate, the core material shall be tapered with a gradient of at least 1 : 3.

(7)在夹心结构和实体层的过度区,芯材应该有一个至少1:3的锥度。

(8)Parallel or insert linings shall be free from moisture and impurities. Their surfaces to be bonded to the laminate shall be prepared suitably (see Section

3.4.4.2, para 1).

(8)平行或嵌入的衬套不能潮湿和不能有杂质。其粘结表面应预先处理(见3.4.4.2节,第1段)。

3.4.3.6 Curing and tempering

3.4.3.6 固化和调节

(1)Components may only be removed from the moulds after adequate curing of the resin and the adhesive. The required curing time depends on the forces that may occur due to the separation of the component from the mould, the curing temperature and the resin systems used. The curing time shall be determined by experiment.

(1)树脂和粘结剂充分固化后,部件才能从模具中移除。要求的固化时间由脱模力,固化温度和树脂决定。固化时间由实验确定。

(2)Resin systems which cure under pressure, UV radiation and/or increased temperature shall be treated in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions or the results of suitable previous investigations.

(2)在压力下固化的树脂,紫外线辐射和/或温度增加应按照制造商的说明或以前的调查结果处理。

(3)Immediately following curing, the components shall receive post-curing (tempering) at elevated temperature. The tempering time depends on the particular resin system and the temperature attainable within the component during tempering. This shall remain below the heat deflection temperature or glass transition temperature. Cold-curing systems which are not subsequently tempered shall be stored for 30 days under curing conditions. This period may be reduced with the consent of GL Wind, provided the relevant manufacturer’s instructions for post-curing are available or confirmed experimental post-curing values can be presented.

(3)紧跟固化后,部件将受到高温后固化(调节)处理。调节时间由特定的树脂体系和调节期间达到的温度决定。保持在热变形温度或玻璃态温度以下。没有调节的冷固化体系在固化条件下储藏30天。假如相关制造商的后固化说明适用,或者有确切的后固化处理试验值,这个期限在GL允许的情况下可以减少。

3.4.3.7 Sealing

3.4.3.7 密封

(1)Laminate surfaces without surface protection shall be sealed after curing/tempering, using suitable agents. In particular, the cut edges of cut-outs and glued joints shall be carefully protected against penetration by extraneous media (e.g. moisture).

(1)没有表面保护的层压表面在固化/回火后应使用合适的密封剂进行密封。特别是剪切边和粘结处应该小心保护,以防止外来物(如湿气)渗透。

(2)The sealing materials used shall not impair the properties of the laminate. They shall also suit the intended purpose of the component.

(2)密封材料不能影响层压的性能。他们也要符合部件的既定目的。

3.4.4Adhesive bonding

3.4.4 胶接

3.4.4.1 Adhesive joints

3.4.4.1 胶粘接合

(1)Adhesive joints for load-bearing parts shall generally be verified by tests to be agreed on for each individual case, unless comparable experience is available.

(1)对于每一个单个情形,承载部件的粘结通常由实验证明,除非有可用经验。

Note:

注释:

Particularly in the case of highly thixotropic adhesives, prior proof of their suitability shall be given with due consideration of the production process.

特别在使用高触变粘结剂的情况下,应事先证明其适用生产。

(2)A specification for production and testing shall be compiled for the adhesive joints of load-bearing structures. In particular, the nominal values and tolerances of adhesive-layer thicknesses as well as the maximum size and extent of permissible flaws shall be defined. The adhesive layer thicknesses, tolerances and the maximum size and extent of permissible flaws shall be considered during the computational verification of the adhesive joint (see Section 5.5.6).

(2)承载部件的粘接点应采用生产规范和测试规范。尤其是,粘结厚度的名义值和公差,还有允许缺陷的最大尺寸和程度应该定义。粘结层厚度,公差、最大尺寸和最大程度在粘结计算验证过程中应被充分考虑(见第5.5.6)。

(3)Only adhesives with confirmed properties may be used for bonding. If adhesives are used for structural bonding and these components are part of a project certification, the adhesive shall have GL approval in addition. The adhesives may not have any negative effects on the materials to be joined.

(3)只有证实了性能的粘结剂才能被用做粘结。如果粘结剂被用做结构粘结,且这些组部件是项目认证的一部分,则粘结剂应该有GL认证。粘结剂对粘结材料不得有任何负面影响。

(4)The possibility of contact corrosion (bond-line corrosion) shall be countered by suitable means.

(4)应采取有效方法防止接触腐蚀(结合腐蚀)。

(5)If FRP components are to be bonded and a resin system differing from the laminating system is used, the components shall be totally cured before bonding.

(5)如果待粘结的FRP部件,其树脂不同于层压系统的树脂,则在粘结前部件应完全固化。

3.4.4.2 Assembly process

3.4.4.2 组合过程

(1)The various surface pretreatments for synthetic materials and metals are for example compiled in VDI 2229 and VDI 3821.

(1)合成材料和金属各种表面的预处理见VDI2229和VDI3821。

(2)The surfaces of the materials to be bonded together shall be dry and free of release agents (wax, grease, oil etc.), impurities (dust, rust etc.) and solvents. Especially when using solvents for cleaning purposes, compatibility with the material and sufficient ventilation time shall be ensured.

(2)粘结在一起的材料表面,应干燥,无脱模剂(蜡,油脂,石油等),杂质(灰尘,铁锈等)和溶剂。尤其是当使用溶剂清洗的时,应确保材料的兼容和充足的通风时间。

(3)Smooth surfaces shall be roughened either mechanically (rough-grinding, sand-blasting etc.) or chemically by etching. It is absolutely necessary that layers on the surface of the materials to be bonded that exert a negative effect on the bonding process (e.g. skin-forming additives in polyester resins or residues of peel ply in the case of FRP, or oxide layers in the case of aluminium) be removed.

(3)光滑表面应通过机械的(粗研磨,喷砂等)或化学蚀刻来处理。去除对粘接过程有负面影响的材料表层是绝对必要的(如聚酯树脂表面成型粘结剂或在FRP剥落残留物或氧化铝)。

(4)In many cases, an increase in the strength of the bonded connection can be achieved by the use of specially matched primers. The use of primers is particularly recommended for bonded joints which later in service are relatively heavily stressed by environmental influences.

(4)在很多情况下,通过使用特殊的底漆增加粘结强度。使用这些底漆可以在相当大的程度上抵抗环境影响。

(5)The adhesive shall be processed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions; the proportion of fillers may not exceed the permitted limit. When mixing the adhesive, its constituents shall be mixed in such a way that they are evenly distributed, care being taken to beat in as little air as possible.

(5)根据制造商的规定处理粘结剂,填充比例不能超过允许极限。混合粘结剂时,应分配均匀,尽可能少的气泡。

(6)The adhesive shall be applied evenly and as bubble-free as possible to the materials to be joined. If highly thixotropic adhesives are used, it is advisable to apply a thin undercoat of the corresponding pure resin to the surfaces to be joined.

(6)使用粘结剂应均匀,粘接材料时应尽可能地没有气泡。如果使用高触变的粘结剂,则建议粘结面使用相应的纯树脂薄胶衣。

(7)Following application of the adhesive, the materials to be joined shall be brought together without delay and fixed in place.

(7)涂好粘接剂后,材料必须立即粘接,并固定在某个位置。

(8)A loading of the adhesive joint before the adhesive has cured sufficiently is inadmissible (see Section3.4.3.6, para 1). For all adhesive joints with thermosetting adhesives, subsequent tempering of the joint is recommended; in the case of cold-curing adhesives, tempering is necessary as a rule.

(8)未完全固化前,粘结点不得承载(见第3.4.3.6中第1段)。对于所有热固化粘接剂的粘接点,建议随后应调质;在冷固化粘结剂的情况下,按规定调质是必要的。

(9)After curing, the adhesive joint shall be protected by suitable means against penetration by extraneous media (e.g. moisture).

(9)固化后,粘结处通过合适的方式保护,以免外界物(如湿气)渗透进去。

3.4.5Manufacturing surveillance for FRP

3.4.5 FRP制造监督

3.4.5.1 General

3.4.5.1 概述

(1)The following sections apply for the production surveillance of FRP components by GL Wind, as is the case in project certification for example.

(1)下面这些部分按照GL标准适用于FRP部件生的产监督。如同项目认证。

(2)Manufacturing surveillance of FRP components comprises quality control of the raw material, surveillance during production, and checking the quality of the completed components.

(2)FRP部件的制造监督包括原材料的质量控制,生产监督,以及整个部件的质量检查。

(3)A distinction is made in manufacturing surveillance between internal and external surveillance. External surveillance in the sense of this Guideline means regular random-sampling checks of the internal surveillance and of the component quality by GL Wind or a body recognized by GL Wind.

(3)在制造监督中,内部监督和外部监督之间是有区别的。本指南中,外部监督意味着GL或GL认可的机构进行的内部监督的定期随机抽样检查,以及部件质量。

(4)GL Wind reserves the right to make unannounced inspections of the works. The manufacturer shall allow the representative of GL Wind access to all spaces serving the purposes of manufacture, storage and testing and shall permit him to examine the available production and testing documentation.

(4)GL保留未经宣布进行检查的权利。制造商应允许GL的代表进入所有的制造、储存和测试场所。允许其检测可行性生产和测试文件。

(5)In the case of companies manufacturing components in series with a certified quality management system, external surveillance is usually limited to routine checks at set intervals to be prescribed (audits).

(5)如果制造商的系列产品是在认证的质量管理体系下进行,外部监督通常是按规定的时间进行的例行检查。

(6)For companies which have production and witnessing documentation assessed by GL Wind that exceeds the requirements as per Section 3.4.5.1, para 5, and have concluded an agreement with GL Wind on the reporting of production changes, production deviations and claims, a works expert can be appointed and notified by GL Wind to be responsible towards GL Wind for the surveillance during production.

(6)对于通过GL认证的具有生产和认证文件的公司来说,如超出了第3.4.5.1中第5段中的要求,并已就生产更改,生产偏差和生产需求等达成协议,则GL Wind将指定一个对其负责的专家负责生产监督。

3.4.5.2 Incoming inspection

3.4.5.2 来料检验

(1)The characteristic values and properties of the materials shall be verified by the manufacturer by means of inspection documents. The following inspection documents according to EN 10204 (ISO 10474) are required as a minimum:

EN 10204-2.2    Fibre products, gelcoat resins, paints

EN 10204-2.3    Laminating resins, prepregs, core materials, adhesives

(1)制造商通过检查文件的方式校验材料的特性值和性能。下面给出了根据EN10204(ISO10474)按最小值要求的检查文件:

EN 10204-2.2 纤维产品,胶衣树脂,涂料

EN 10204-2.3 层压树脂,预浸料,芯材,粘结剂。

(2)During the incoming inspection, the goods shall at least be checked for any damage and for compliance of the details in the certificates with the requirements. Material values should be checked by random sampling.

(2)来料检查过程中,应至少检查货物是否有损坏,是否和证书一致。通过随机抽样检查评估材料。

(3)The goods shall be stored in accordance with the requirements of the manufacturer and this Guideline.

(3)货物应根据制造商和本指南要求的标准存放。

3.4.5.3 Production surveillance

3.4.5.3 生产监督

(1)Details of the production process shall be laid down by specifications which also contain specimen documents for production and testing of the components. The tasks and responsibility of the production and quality control departments shall be defined clearly.

(1)生产工艺细节将在规范中列出,其包含生产和试验的样品文件。生产任务和责任,以及质量控制部门应明确规定。

(2)As the work progresses, the individual production steps shall be signed by the employees responsible for each stage on the basis of the prescribed documentation.

(2)随着生产的进行,在指定文件的基础上,每一个生产过程都必须有专门负责人员签字。

(3)The individuals entrusted with production shall be trained in accordance with their task, and shall work under professionally qualified supervision. In the case of adhesive joints, the responsible supervisors shall have an appropriate qualification in adhesives, and the individuals performing the work shall have undergone suitable training.

(3)负责生产的员工应按照他们的任务培训,并在专业资历人员的监督下工作。在进行粘结工作时,监督员应有相应的粘接资质,且粘接工作人员必须经过适当的培训。

Note:

注释:

Training as adhesive bonding worker / adhesive bonding specialist according to DVS / EWF 3305 is desirable.

粘结工人/粘结专家培训应根据DVS / EWF 3305标准。

(4)The batch numbers of the materials used in the component shall be given in the production documentation, in order that they can be traced back to the manufacturer if need be. Reinforcing layers introduced into the laminate shall be checked off immediately during the production process, with indication of the fibre direction.

(4)在生产文件中应给出材料批号,以便在需要时能够追溯到生产商。在生产过程中应检查核对层压中的增强层,并表明纤维方向。

(5)From every batch of reaction resin compound, a sample shall be taken and tested. If mixing is performed continuously, one sample per batch and production step is sufficient. These samples shall be randomly checked for their degree of curing. The results shall be recorded.

(5)对于每一批反应树脂化合物,都要取出一个样本进行测试。如果连续混合,每一批和生产步中一个样本就足够了。随机检查这些样本固化度。将结果记录下来。

(6)On request by GL Wind, reference laminates of about 50 x 50 cm shall be produced in parallel. This shall result in confirmation of the material values used as a basis for the strength calculations.

(6)按照GL要求,生产大约50×50cm的参考层。这些参考层将用于确定强度计算基础的材料数值,。

3.4.5.4 Component checks

3.4.5.4 部件检查

(1)The scope of the component checks shall be laid down in consultation with GL Wind before production commences.

(1)生产开始前,部件检查范围应咨询GLWind。

(2)During and on completion of the production process, the component shall be visually checked, and critical areas shall be tested by tapping or by another suitable method. Attention shall be paid to air and particle-inclusions, delamination, distortion, whitening, discoloration, damage etc. In addition, the general quality (e.g. surface finish) shall be visually checked.

(2)无论生产过程中,还是部件已经完工,部件都应进行目测,关键区域应通过敲打或其他合适的方法测试。应注意是否含有气体和颗粒,是否有分层、变形、变白、污点、损坏等。此外,应进行大体质量的目测(如表面完成情况)。

(3)In justified cases and on request by GL Wind, the fibre content of the component shall be determined in a representative number of spots, to permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the quality of the laminating work. Similarly, the build-up of layers should be checked by suitable tests.

(3)在对部件验证时以及GL Wind要求下,为得出层压工作的结论,部件纤维含量将由一些典型代表点测定,同样地,应该通过合适的测试方法来检查铺层。

(4)Single or random-sampling tests of completed components regarding natural frequencies, static and/or dynamic loads plus their geometry shall be carried out on request of GL Wind.

(4)关于完工部件的固有频率、静态和/动态载荷以及外形测试的单一或随机抽样测试,应按GL要求进行。

(5)The repair of any defects that are detected in the component shall be documented. The repair procedures will be assessed beforehand within the scope of the production specifications to be submitted.

(5)在部件中检测到的任何缺陷的修复要被存档。在提交的生产规范范围内,修复工艺应预先评估。

3.4.6Wood processing

3.4.6 木材加工

3.4.6.1 Manufacture of wooden rotor blades

3.4.6.1 木制转子的制造(估计是轮毂罩的模具)

3.4.6.1.1General

3.4.6.1.1 概述

(1)Apart from the selection of suitable and approved materials, their processing is of particular importance because of its significant influence on the properties of the product.

(1)除了选择合适的材料外,其制造过程也特别重要,因为它对产品性能有重要的影响。

(2)In the preparation and processing of the components, the directions of the manufacturers of the raw material and the requirements of the relevant safety authorities and employers’ liability insurance associations shall be taken into account together with this Guideline.

(2)在部件的准备和加工中,应综合考虑本指南,原材料制造商的说明、相关安全当局和顾主责任保险的要求。

(3)It is not possible for this Guideline to cover all the details of every mould and production process. Deviations from this Guideline are therefore possible with the consent of GL Wind.

(3)指南不可能包括每个模具和生产过程所有的细节。与本指南相背离的地方必须同GL Wind商讨。

(4)Details of the production process shall be laid down in the form of checksheets or work progress slips, samples of which are to be enclosed with the quality manual. These shall be signed off by the employees responsible for each stage as the work progresses.

(4)生产过程细节以检查表或节点流程卡形式列出,其中都必须附有质量手册。这些检查表或流程卡都必须有相关责任人员的签字。

3.4.6.1.2Mould requirements

3.4.6.1.2 模具要求

The moulds for laminated-wood rotor blades shall, in addition to a high degree of dimensional accuracy, have sufficient rigidity to eliminate the risk of unacceptable deformation during the manufacturing process. Equipment shall be provided to ensure perfect joining when sub-structures are glued together.

为保证高的尺寸精度,层压木制转子模具应有一个充足的刚度以避免制造过程中变形的危险。在粘接子部件时,应提供粘接设备以确保完美的粘接。

3.4.6.1.3Preparing the wood

3.4.6.1.3 木材准备

(1)Pre-sorting shall be used to ensure that the sawn timber meets class S 13 according to DIN 4074-1 or a comparable quality standard according to other regulations.

(1)为确保成材满足DIN4074-1的S13级或者其他等效标准,在发货前应对木材进行分类。

(2)Prior to further processing, the mean moisture content shall be determined. It should be 10 % ± 2 % as the mean of 10 typical random samples. Under no circumstances may the variation in moisture content between individual samples exceed 4 %.

(2)在进一步加工前,应该确定平均湿度,其值应该为十个典型随机抽样的平均值,为10% ± 2 %,。任何情况下,单个样本间的湿度变化不得超过4 %。

(3)When boards are processed into solid-wood rotor blades, this moisture content is generally achieved by chamber drying. Veneers used for the manufacture of moulded laminates shall, if supplied in dried condition, be stored in such a way that their moisture content does not exceed the stated tolerances

(3)当木板被加工成实体木制转子时,通常通过干燥室达到规定的含湿量。模具制造商所用的木板,如果在干燥条件下供货,储存时,其含湿量不得超过规定的公差。

(4)For good conformability, boards shall be planed on all sides. Rough-sawn boards shall not be permitted to reach the bonding stage.

(4)为了连接一致,所有板边都要刨平。未刨平的木板不得用于粘接。

(5)Secondary sorting shall be undertaken once the boards have been planed. Individual fault areas may be cut out.

(5)一旦板被刨平,就要进行等级分类,可切除个别缺陷区域。

3.4.6.1.4Layer build-up and bonding

3.4.6.1.4 层的建立和粘结

(1)Glueing of the wood shall be carried out as soon as possible after planing to prevent fouling of the surfaces to be glued and deformation as a result of subsequent shrinking or swelling.

(1)木材刨平后,应尽可能快地进行粘结,以防止粘结表面出现污垢,以及随后的收缩或膨胀导致的变形。

(2)All components used for processing should be at room temperature. The ambient humidity of the room shall be adjusted so that the required moisture content tolerances are observed.

(2)制造用组分应该在室温下。调节房间湿度以满足湿度要求。

(3)The boards shall be oriented with their layers in such a way that the risk of the glued joints cracking open is kept to a minimum. Longitudinal butt-joints of individual boards shall be made as dovetail joints of load group I according to DIN 68140. It shall be ensured in the layering that there is sufficient offset of the longitudinal joints.

(3)每一层板的铺向应按照这样的方法,即应使接缝开裂的危险保持在最底值。根据DIN68140,单个板间的纵向接头应该被做为载荷类型I的楔形榫头。这将确保层中纵向接缝充足的偏移量。

(4)If cross-sections with a width greater than 22 cm are being produced, each layer shall have several boards in parallel so arranged that there is sufficient overlap between the longitudinal joints within the layer.

(4)如果生产的截面宽度超过了22cm,则每一层将会有几个板被平行布置。以便纵向接缝间有充足的重叠。

(5)When processing veneers, either butt or scarfjoints are permitted, provided care is taken to ensure an adequate overlap of the joints in the layers. The glue shall be applied evenly and in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. To achieve a glue coating of constant high quality, automation of the glue application process is required.

(5)生产胶结板时,允许对接或围接,要求十分小心以确保一个充足的达接。根据生产商的说明均匀涂胶。为了获得高质量的胶衣,要求涂胶过程自动化。

(6)The boards to be glued shall be kept under pressure while the glue cures. The manufacturer’s instructions shall be observed.

(6)粘接时,粘结板应保持压力。满足制造商的说明。

(7)When processing veneers into moulded wood laminate, vacuum processes should preferably be used. The glueing of such part-skins shall be carried out following the pattern for gluing boards. Part and half skins shall be held in the desired position by suitable aids so that adequate dimensional accuracy is achieved.

(7)当将木板加工成模具板时,应正确使用真空工艺。对于粘接板,部分壳体的粘接应该按照模具的要求来进行。部分及半壳体通过合适的帮助处于理想的位置,以便获得精确的尺寸精度。

(8)The temperature for glueing shall be at least 20 °C. Glueing temperatures up to 50 °C may be used to reduce the curing time

(8)粘结温度至少在20°C,粘接温度也可达到50°C,以用来缩短固化时间。

3.4.6.1.5Wood preservation

3.4.6.1.5 木材防腐剂

When boards have been glued together or half-skins have been produced, any hollow spaces shall be treated with wood preservative. This also applies to subsequently mechanically machined areas, such as drillings and millings for connection elements where the blade is joined to the hub.

当板被粘结在一起或半壳体被生产时,任何空的地方都要用木材防腐剂处理。对于随后的机加工区域,比如叶片和轮毂连接部件的钻孔和研磨,也同样适用。

3.4.6.1.6Surface protection

3.4.6.1.6 表面保护

(1)The wood surface to be treated shall be even and free from cracks. Small surface defects in the wood shall be eliminated in a competent manner.

(1)木制表面应均匀无裂缝。小表面的缺陷以一个适当的方式清除。

2)Materials for providing protection against moisture shall be processed and applied according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Effective protection of the surface usually requires application of several coats.

(2)用于湿气保护的材料应依据制造商说明加工和使用。表面的有效保护通常要求使用几层胶衣。

(3)Textile inserts shall be incorporated in the surface coating in accordance with the processing rules for FRP rotor blades (see Section 3.4.4).

(3)对于FRP叶片,按照制造规定(见第3.4.4),织物与胶衣应该合为一体。

3.4.6.1.7Blade connections

3.4.6.1.7 叶片连接

(1)Connections between the rotor blades and the hub shall be so designed that reliable load transfer is guaranteed. It is particularly important to ensure that the differences in elastic properties between wood, the connection elements and if applicable synthetic resins, are compensated for in the design. In addition, joints between the wooden blade, the connection element and the hub shall be protected effectively against the penetration of moisture into the wood.

(1)叶片和轮毂间的连接应设计好,以保证可靠的载荷传递。对于设计,确保木材间弹性,连接件和采用的合成树脂的差异是否得到补偿是特别重要的。此外,木制叶片,连接件和轮毂间的连接必须有效保护以免湿气渗透到木材中。

(2)Because of the multiplicity of design possibilities, no generally applicable requirements for the protection of the joints are stated in this Guideline.

(2)由于存在多种设计的可能,对于接缝的防护,本指南并没有说明普遍适用的要求。

3.4.6.2 Manufacturing surveillance of wooden rotor blades

3.4.6.2 木制转子的制造监测

3.4.6.2.1General

3.4.6.2.1 概述

(1)The component properties of wooden rotor blades depend not only on the quality of the raw materials but also on their processing. Furthermore, the possibilities of checking the properties and discovering possible defects are more restricted at a later stage. It is therefore not sufficient just to test the raw material or the finished product; continuous surveillance during production is required.

(1)木制转子部件性能不仅取决于原材料质量,而且还取决于加工过程。并且,检查性能和发现缺陷的可能性在后期有更多地限制。因此,无需充分地测试原材料或成品;生产过程中要求进行连续监督。

(2)In manufacturing surveillance, a distinction is made between internal and external surveillance. External surveillance in the sense of this Guideline means regular checks (see Section 3.1.4 / Shop approval) of the internal surveillance and quality control.

(2)在制造监督中,内部和外部监督间是有区别的,外部监督意味着内部监督和质量控制的管理检查(见第3.1.4/)。

3.4.6.2.2Incoming inspection

3.4.6.2.2 进厂检查

(1)Proof of the characteristic values and mechanical properties laid down in the material approval procedure shall be provided by the manufacturer in a test report. In the case of wood, sorting class S 13 shall be verified in writing by the supplier.

(1)在材料认证程序中,特征值和机械特性的证据必须由制造商总结在一份试验报告中,对于木材,S 13的分类必须由供应商以书面形式确认。

(2)As part of the incoming inspection, the accompanying documentation shall be checked for conformity with the requirements, and the materials shall be stored in accordance with this Guideline and entered into the inventory file.

(2)作为进厂检查的一部分,应检查随箱文件是否符合要求,材料的存放是否符合本指南要求,并记录在财产清单文件中。

3.4.6.2.3Visual checks

3.4.6.2.3 目测

During and on completion of the production process, the component shall be visually checked. Attention shall be paid to completeness of glueing, flaws in the surface of the wood etc.

在整个产品的制造过程中,应目测部件。注意是否有粘结不完整,木材表面缺陷等现象。

3.4.7Making and working the concrete

3.4.7混凝土的制作和施工

The making and working of concrete can be carried out according to EN 1992 (Eurocode 2) and EN 206. The essential steps are listed in the following.

混凝土的制作工作根据EN1992和EN206执行。重要步骤在下面的内容中列出。

3.4.7.1 Proportioning and mixing he raw materials

3.4.7.1 原材料的配料和混合

(1)Mixing instructions, containing precise details of the type and quantity of the raw materials for the concrete mix to be produced, shall be available in writing.

(1)混合说明以书面的形式提供,包括用做生产的原材料类型和数量的准确详情。

(2)The raw materials shall be proportioned by weight.

(2)原材料按重量配料。

(3)They shall be mixed in a mechanical mixer until

a uniform mixture has been produced.

(3)他们在机械搅拌机中被搅拌直到混合均匀。

3.4.7.2 Transport, pouring and compacting

3.4.7.2 运输,浇注和压实

(1)The type of delivery and composition of the concrete shall be matched to prevent segregation.

(1)发运类型和混凝土成分应搅拌均匀,以防止混合不均。

(2)In pedestal and wall-shuttering, down pipes ending just above the working point shall be used.

(2)在基座和墙体模板,应使用正好在工作点以上的末端下管。

(3)Discharge pipes for pumped concrete shall be run in such a way that there is no break in the concrete flow within the pipes.

混凝土的排放管不得有破损。

(4)The reinforcement rods shall be tightly encasedin concrete.

(4) 钢筋应紧紧包裹在混凝土中。

(5)The concrete shall be completely compacted.

(5)混凝土被完全压实。

(6)The individual sections for concreting shall be determined before concreting starts.

(6)凝固前,应确定单个混凝土部件。

3.4.7.3 Curing

3.4.7.3 固化

(1) In order to attain the properties expected of the concrete, especially in the surface region, careful cur-ing and protective measures are required for a signifi-cant period.

(1)为了获得期望的混凝土性能,特别在表面区,关键时期应要求有细心的固化,采取保护措施。

(2) Curing and protection shall be started as soon as possible after the concrete has been compacted.

(2)混凝土压实后,固化和保护应尽可能早地开始。

(3) Curing prevents premature drying-out, particu-larly due to sunshine and wind.

(3)固化应预防过早干燥,特别由于阳光和风。

3.4.7.4 Concreting in cool or hot weather

3.4.7.4 冷热情况下的凝固

(1)In cool weather and in frost conditions, the concrete shall be poured at a specified minimum temperature and protected for a certain length of time against heat loss and drying-out.

(1)在冷天气和在霜冻条件下,混凝土的浇筑温度应保证不低于规定的最底温度,且在一定的时间内被保护以防失去热量和水分。

(2)Green concrete shall not be added to frozen concrete. Aggregate may not be used in the frozen condition.

(2)环保混凝土不能添加到冷冻混凝土中。不能冷冻条件下使用聚合剂。

(3)In hot weather, account shall be taken of the effect of the sun on the green concrete (e.g. covering it over)

(3)在热气候中,应考虑太阳对环保混凝土的影响(如覆盖在其上的)

(4) The temperature of green concrete can be lowered by chilling the aggregate and the water to be added.

(4)环保混凝土温度可以通过冷却聚合体的方法以及加水的方法降低,。

3.4.7.5 Formwork and its supports

3.4.7.5 模板及其支撑

3.4.7.5.1Forms

3.4.7.5.1模具

(1)Forms and boxing shall be made as dimensionally accurate as possible and tight enough to prevent the fine mortar of the concrete flowing out through the gaps during pouring and compacting.

(1)模具和箱体尺寸应准确,并紧固充分,以防灌注和压紧时混凝土水泥砂浆从缝隙中流走。

(2)Forms and their supporting structure shall be so dimensioned that they can safely absorb all forces that may arise until hardening has occurred, account being taken also of the effect of the pouring speed and the type of compaction of the concrete.

(2)模具和支撑结构应能安全地吸收所有可能产生的力,直到发生硬化,必须考虑浇注速度和混凝土压实力的影响。

(3)If slip forms are used the basic principles of this process are to be observed, as described for example in the data sheet “Gleitbauverfahren” (“Slip form building”; Deutscher Beton-Verein e.V.).

(3)如果采用滑模,应遵守该工艺的基本原则,如在数据表“Gleitbauverfahren”中描述的那样(“建筑滑模”;Deutscher Beton-Verein e.V.).。

3.4.7.5.2Stripping

3.4.7.5.2 脱模

Stripping may only be carried out after the concrete has attained sufficient strength as regards the loadcarrying capacity and resistance to deformation of the component and the form is no longer needed for curing purposes.

考虑到承载能力和部件抵抗变形能力,只有在混凝土有足够的强度后才能脱模。考虑到已经固化,不再需要模具。

3.4.7.6 Quality control

3.4.7.6 质量控制

3.4.7.6.1General

3.4.7.6.1 概述

(1) The application of a quality management system in accordance with ISO 9001 is described in Section 3.2.

(1)根据ISO9001,质量管理体系的应用在第3.2章中说明。

(2) This section contains a minimum of necessary control measures for the planning and construction of concrete structures. They comprise the important measures and decisions plus the necessary tests in connection with the construction regulations, standards and the generally accepted state of the art which to-gether are important for the adherence to the pre-scribed requirements.

(2)本章内容包含混凝土结构必需的最低控制措施。包含重要的措施、结果以及与建筑规则、标准相关的必需试验,是否符合规定的要求,对可接受的建筑物来说很重要。

(3) Surveillance of manufacturing and construction comprises all measures for compliance with and con-trol of the required quality of the building materials and the workmanship. It consists of checks by visual inspection and testing, and also includes evaluation of the test results.

(3)为保证对建筑材料的质量和工艺的控制,制造和构造监督包括一切必要的措施。包括目测和试验,也包括评价试验结果。

(4) Surveillance of manufacturing and construction comprises:

    – suitability tests and methods of control

    – tests and checks during construction

    – final inspections and final checks

If necessary, suitability tests shall precede the start of construction, in order to ensure that the planned struc-ture can be erected satisfactorily using the prescribed building materials, equipment and manufacturing pro-cedures.

(4)制造和构造监督包括:

-适当的测试和控制方法

-构造阶段的测试和检查

-最终检查

如果必要,建造开始前应进行适当的测试,使用指定的建筑材料,设备和制造工艺,以确保建筑满意的树立。

(5) The quality and compatibility of the materials with the raw materials of concrete, mortar etc. should be ensured either on the basis of previous experience or by tests carried out.

(5)混凝土原料、水泥砂浆等材料的质量和兼容性应该有经验数值或经过试验验证。

(6) Only standardized building materials should be used.

(6)只使用标准的建筑材料。

(7) The checks required are summarized in Table 3.4.1.

(7)要求的检查见表3.4.1中。

3.4.7.6.2Tests during construction

3.4.7.6.2 建造过程中的测试

(1)General requirements:

– Dimensions, properties and suitability of the building materials, fixtures in the structure and the appliances fitted shall be surveiled continuously.

– The building materials and components delivered to the building site shall be checked against the order specification.

– Important findings shall be entered into written records (e.g. the construction logbook) and made accessible to all concerned.

– Depending on the required reliability level, special checks may be agreed additionally.

– For the quality control of concrete, EN 206applies.

– For all other building materials or other materials, reference shall be made to currently valid technical documentation.

(1)总体要求

——建筑材料的尺寸,性能和适宜性,固定装置结构和用具安装,都要被连续监督。

——运送到工地的建筑材料和部件都应根据订单的技术规范进行检查。

——重要的发现应记录在案(如施工日志) ,以备查询。

——取决于要求的可靠等级,可能需要额外的专项检查。

——EN206使用的混凝土质量控制。

——对于所有其他的建筑材料或其他材料,涉及物,应符合当前有效技术文件。

(2)Acceptance checks for site deliveries

– For the delivery note of ready-mixed concrete, EN 206 applies.

– For prefabricated parts, the delivery note shall

certify that they were made, marked and treated in accordance with the order specification.

– The delivery notes for reinforcing steel shall contain the following information:

– steel in bundles, in coils or under the usual conditions of structural steel engineering

– bars or welded-up reinforcing-steel mats

– steel cut to length and bent

– prefabricated reinforcement

– Origin and characteristics of the delivered steel shall be known for the entire reinforcement.

– For prestressing steel and prestressing equipment, EN 1992 (Eurocode 2) applies.

(2)现场配送的接收检查

——对于掺水即可使用的混凝土的交付记录,适用EN206

——对于预制部件,交付记录必须如下:

——确认其是根据订货技术条件制作、标准,处理的

——对于加强筋,交付记录必须涵盖以下内容:

——钢筋束,盘卷形式或在工程结构钢的普通条件下

——适当的裁剪和弯曲

——预制加强筋

——对于整个加强筋,交货钢筋的来源和特性必须知道

——对于预加强筋和预压设备,适用EN 1992(欧标 2)

(3)Checks:

– Regarding checks prior to concreting, seeEN 206.

    – Before inserting the prestressing elements, a check shall be made to see whether any dam-age has occurred in the works or after arrival on the site.

– It is recommended that a general check be made before starting the prestressing to see whether the entire prestressing process can be carried out without hindrance.

– A prestressing report shall be compiled on the measurements made during the individual prestressing steps (jack force, extensions, an-chor slippage etc.).

    –The interval between prestressing and comple-tion of the protective measures for the rein-forcing steel (grouting) shall be checked and recorded.

    – During grouting, it is necessary to check the injection pressure, the unimpeded flow of the grouting mortar from the vents, the amount of mortar coming out of any leakage points and the amount of mortar injected, as well as to take samples for checking the consistency and water loss. If necessary, the strength of the mortar should be checked.

(3)检查:

——关于固化前的检查见EN206。

——插入预应力件之前,应检查工件上或工件到达现场后是否有任何损坏。

——开始加预应力之前建议做一个总体检查,看整个预应力过程是否可以没有阻碍地进行。

——对在单个预应力步骤过程中实行的措施编制一个预应力报告。

——对于加强筋,预应力和保护措施完成间的时间间隔应被检查和记录。

——灌浆过程中,有必要检查灌注压力,水泥砂浆注入是否有阻力,是否有水泥砂浆泄露,有必要检查密度及丧失的水分。如果有必要,应检查砂浆的强度。

3.4.7.6.3 Conformity checks

3.4.7.6.3 一致性检查

(1) By conformity checks are meant all measures and decisions whose observation ensures that all pre-scribed requirements, criteria and conditions are en-tirely complied with. This includes the completion of the relevant documentation.

(1)    通过一致性检查,意味着如果满足所有的措施和决定,则可以保证所有指定要求,标准和条件完全满足。这包括相关文件的完成。

(2) For conformity checks for concrete, see EN 206.

(2)对混凝土的一致性检查,见EN206。

(3) Conformity checks for other building materials shall be based on international standards or, if these do not exist, on national standards or approvals.

(3)对其他建筑材料的一致性检查应根据国际标准,如果没有,要根据国家标准或经过批准。

3.4.7.6.4 Inspection and maintenance of the completed structure

3.4.7.6.4 整个结构的检查和维护

(1)Special checks (inspections) to be carried out during service shall be laid down in an inspection programme.

(1)检查程序中应有运行过程中的特定检查。

(2) All information required for utilisation and maintenance should be at the disposal of whoever has responsibility for the entire structure.

(2)使用和维护要求的所有信息应该为整个结构负责人所处理。